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Suicide

Suicide Definitions and Risk Factors: – Suicide is the intentional act of causing one’s death, while attempted suicide and assisted suicide involve different levels of […]

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Suicide Definitions and Risk Factors:
– Suicide is the intentional act of causing one’s death, while attempted suicide and assisted suicide involve different levels of intent.
– Risk factors for suicide include mental disorders, physical disorders, substance abuse, stress, relationship problems, and previous suicide attempts.
– Effective prevention strategies involve limiting access to suicide methods and treating mental disorders.
– Rates of suicide are higher among men, and common methods include hanging and pesticide poisoning.

Global Impact and Epidemiology:
– In 2015, suicides resulted in 828,000 deaths globally, making it the 10th leading cause of death.
– Approximately 1.5% of all deaths worldwide are by suicide, with higher rates among men and increasing with age.
– Europe had the highest suicide rates by region in 2015.
– Suicide rates vary between countries, with the US having the largest number of gun-related suicides globally.

Mental Illness and Substance Misuse:
– Mental illness, such as major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder, is a significant factor in suicide cases.
– Substance misuse is the second most common risk factor for suicide after major depression and bipolar disorder.
– Alcoholism is present in a significant percentage of suicide cases.
– Chronic substance misuse, acute intoxication, and personal grief can increase suicide risk.

Psychosocial Factors and Prevention:
– Psychological factors like hopelessness, depression, and anxiety increase suicide risk.
– Poor problem-solving abilities, impulse control, feeling like a burden, social isolation, and poverty are associated with suicide risk.
– Suicide prevention aims to reduce incidence through preventive measures, including support, therapy, and reducing access to lethal methods.
– Screening tools like the IS PATH WARM acronym help identify potentially suicidal individuals.

Cultural Perspectives and Methods of Suicide:
– Views on suicide are influenced by cultural themes like religion, honor, and the meaning of life.
– Different cultures historically have varying attitudes towards suicide.
– Common methods of suicide globally include hanging, pesticide poisoning, and firearms.
– The media’s portrayal of suicide can influence behavior, with detailed descriptions potentially leading to imitation.

Suicide (Wikipedia)

Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death. Mental disorders (including depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, cognitive disengagement syndrome), physical disorders (such as chronic fatigue syndrome), and substance abuse (including alcoholism and the use of and withdrawal from benzodiazepines) are risk factors. Some suicides are impulsive acts due to stress (such as from financial or academic difficulties), relationship problems (such as breakups or divorces), or harassment and bullying. Those who have previously attempted suicide are at a higher risk for future attempts. Effective suicide prevention efforts include limiting access to methods of suicide such as firearms, drugs, and poisons; treating mental disorders and substance abuse; careful media reporting about suicide; improving economic conditions; and dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT). Although crisis hotlines are common resources, their effectiveness has not been well studied.

Suicide
Le Suicidé by Édouard Manet
SpecialtyPsychiatry, clinical psychology, clinical social work
Usual onset15–30 and 70+ years old
Risk factorsDepression, bipolar disorder, autism, schizophrenia, personality disorders, anxiety disorders, alcoholism, substance abuse
PreventionLimiting access to methods of suicide, treating mental disorders and substance misuse, careful media reporting about suicide, improving social and economic conditions
Frequency12 per 100,000 per year
Deaths793,000 / 1.5% of deaths (2016)
988 Suicide & Crisis Lifeline, a crisis line in the United States and Canada

The most commonly adopted method of suicide varies from country to country and is partly related to the availability of effective means. Common methods of suicide include hanging, pesticide poisoning, and firearms. Suicides resulted in 828,000 deaths globally in 2015, an increase from 712,000 deaths in 1990.[inconsistent] This makes suicide the 10th leading cause of death worldwide.

Approximately 1.5% of all deaths worldwide are by suicide. In a given year, this is roughly 12 per 100,000 people. Rates of suicide are generally higher among men than women, ranging from 1.5 times higher in the developing world to 3.5 times higher in the developed world. Suicide is generally most common among those over the age of 70; however, in certain countries, those aged between 15 and 30 are at the highest risk. Europe had the highest rates of suicide by region in 2015. There are an estimated 10 to 20 million non-fatal attempted suicides every year. Non-fatal suicide attempts may lead to injury and long-term disabilities. In the Western world, attempts are more common among young people and women.

Views on suicide have been influenced by broad existential themes such as religion, honor, and the meaning of life. The Abrahamic religions traditionally consider suicide as an offense towards God due to belief in the sanctity of life. During the samurai era in Japan, a form of suicide known as seppuku (腹切り, harakiri) was respected as a means of making up for failure or as a form of protest. Similarly, a ritual fast unto death, known as Vatakkiruttal (Tamilவடக்கிருத்தல், Vaṭakkiruttal, 'fasting facing north'), was a Tamil ritual suicide in ancient India during the Sangam age. Suicide and attempted suicide, while previously illegal, are no longer so in most Western countries. It remains a criminal offense in some countries. In the 20th and 21st centuries, suicide has been used on rare occasions as a form of protest; it may also be committed while or after murdering others, such as suicide attacks which have been used as both a military and terrorist tactic. Suicide is often seen as a major catastrophe causing significant grief to the deceased's relatives, friends and community members, and it is viewed negatively almost everywhere around the world.

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