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Cortisol

– Health Effects – Metabolic response – Cortisol regulates glucose metabolism by promoting gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. – It increases blood glucose levels by reducing glucose […]

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– Health Effects
– Metabolic response
– Cortisol regulates glucose metabolism by promoting gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis.
– It increases blood glucose levels by reducing glucose uptake in tissues and breaking down fats into fatty acids.
– Cortisol stimulates hormone actions like glucagon and adrenaline to increase glucose production.
– It plays a role in liver and muscle glycogenolysis and facilitates glycogen phosphorylase activation.
– Cortisol and catecholamines work together to promote muscle glycogen breakdown for energy.
– Metabolism of proteins and lipids
– Prolonged elevated cortisol levels can lead to muscle wasting through proteolysis.
– Cortisol affects lipid metabolism differently based on duration: lipogenesis with chronic levels and lipolysis acutely.
– Raised blood glucose from cortisol can indirectly stimulate insulin release and promote lipogenesis over time.
– Cortisol’s impact on lipid metabolism is complex and can lead to lipolysis or lipogenesis depending on the context.
– The relationship between cortisol, blood glucose, and insulin influences lipid metabolism outcomes.
– Immune response
– Cortisol inhibits substances causing inflammation and treats conditions from B-cell overactivity.
– It regulates immune response by inhibiting certain cytokines and upregulating others for a Th2 shift.
– Cortisol weakens the immune system by preventing T-cell proliferation and affecting cytokine expression.
– The negative feedback loop of cortisol on the immune system helps regulate immune response levels.
– Cortisol’s impact on the immune system involves a complex interplay of cytokines and hormone regulation.
– Cortisol in medicine
– Low-dose topical hydrocortisone is used to treat skin issues like rashes and eczema.
– Cortisol medications are used to manage inflammatory conditions and autoimmune diseases.
– Hydrocortisone is a common medication derived from cortisol for various medical applications.
– Cortisol-based medications help regulate immune responses and reduce inflammation in the body.
– The medical applications of cortisol and its derivatives play a crucial role in managing various health conditions.
– Cortisol regulation
– Cortisol is released in a diurnal cycle and increases in response to stress and low blood-glucose levels.
– It binds to receptors inside cells to impact gene expression and regulate various physiological functions.
– Cortisol aids in increasing blood sugar levels, suppressing the immune system, and aiding in metabolism.
– The regulation of cortisol in the body is crucial for maintaining homeostasis and responding to stress.
– Understanding the mechanisms of cortisol regulation is essential for managing stress-related health issues.

Cortisol (Wikipedia)

Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones and a stress hormone. When used as a medication, it is known as hydrocortisone.

Cortisol
Names
IUPAC name
11β,17α,21-Trihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione
Systematic IUPAC name
(1R,3aS,3bS,9aR,9bS,11aS)-1,10-Dihydroxy-1-(hydroxyacetyl)-9a,11a-dimethyl-1,2,3,3a,3b,4,5,8,9,9a,9b,10,11,11a-tetradecahydro-7H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthen-7-one
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
DrugBank
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.019 Edit this at Wikidata
KEGG
UNII
  • InChI=1S/C21H30O5/c1-19-7-5-13(23)9-12(19)3-4-14-15-6-8-21(26,17(25)11-22)20(15,2)10-16(24)18(14)19/h9,14-16,18,22,24,26H,3-8,10-11H2,1-2H3/t14-,15-,16-,18+,19-,20-,21-/m0/s1
    Key: JYGXADMDTFJGBT-VWUMJDOOSA-N
  • O=C4\C=C2/[C@]([C@H]1[C@@H](O)C[C@@]3([C@@](O)(C(=O)CO)CC[C@H]3[C@@H]1CC2)C)(C)CC4
Properties
C21H30O5
Molar mass 362.460 g/mol
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

It is produced in many animals, mainly by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland. It is produced in other tissues in lower quantities. It is released with a diurnal cycle and its release is increased in response to stress and low blood-glucose concentration. It functions to increase blood sugar through gluconeogenesis, to suppress the immune system, and to aid in the metabolism of fat, protein, and carbohydrates. It also decreases bone formation. Many of these functions are carried out by cortisol binding to glucocorticoid or mineralocorticoid receptors inside the cell, which then bind to DNA to impact gene expression.

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