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Sleep deprivation

Causes of Sleep Deprivation: – Insomnia affects 21-37% of adults and can be primary or secondary. – Sleep apnea affects 1-10% of Americans and requires […]

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Causes of Sleep Deprivation:
– Insomnia affects 21-37% of adults and can be primary or secondary.
– Sleep apnea affects 1-10% of Americans and requires positive airway pressure therapy.
– Self-imposed causes include lack of desire to sleep, stimulant drug use, and Revenge Bedtime Procrastination.
– Caffeine consumption can lead to insomnia symptoms and poor sleep quality.
– Mental illness, such as mood disorders, can be exacerbated by sleep loss.

Impact on Health and Performance:
– U.S. students get less than 6 hours of sleep on average, affecting academic performance.
– Hospital patients get 83 minutes less sleep than at home, leading to various health implications.
– Broadband users sleep 25 minutes less, and smartphone use before bed disrupts sleep patterns.
– Shift work causes sleep deprivation, impacting concentration and increasing occupational injuries.
– Sleep deprivation negatively affects the brain, mood, driving ability, and overall performance.

Physiological Effects of Sleep Deprivation:
– Lack of sleep can lead to permanent loss of brain cells and decreased brain activity.
– Sleep deprivation impairs attention, working memory, and cognitive function.
– Driver fatigue contributes to motor vehicle injuries, similar to being drunk.
– Sleep deprivation is linked to cardiovascular morbidity, immunosuppression, weight gain, and type 2 diabetes.
– Sleep deprivation affects the sleep-wake cycle, leading to microsleeps and fatigue.

Assessment and Management of Sleep Deprivation:
– Symptoms include fatigue, drowsiness, and cognitive difficulties.
– Assessment tools like sleep diaries and questionnaires help evaluate sleep patterns.
– Management strategies include promoting quality sleep through sleep hygiene and CBT for insomnia.
– Recognizing sleep insufficiency is crucial for proper diagnosis and treatment.
– Treatment options focus on increasing nightly sleep time and minimizing adverse effects.

Other Aspects of Sleep Deprivation:
– Sleep deprivation is used for abusive control and as an interrogation technique.
– Historical use in interrogation has sparked debates on its classification as torture.
– Sleep deprivation impacts specific groups like air traffic controllers, medical residents, and astronauts.
– The effects of sleep deprivation include psychological, physical, and cognitive impairments.
– Warning signs of driver fatigue and the impact on performance highlight the dangers of sleep deprivation.

Sleep deprivation (Wikipedia)

Sleep deprivation, also known as sleep insufficiency or sleeplessness, is the condition of not having adequate duration and/or quality of sleep to support decent alertness, performance, and health. It can be either chronic or acute and may vary widely in severity. All known animals sleep or exhibit some form of sleep behavior, and the importance of sleep is self-evident for humans, as nearly a third of a person's life is spent sleeping.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) recommendations for the amount of sleep needed decrease with age. While sleep quantity is important, good sleep quality is also essential to avoid sleep disorders.
Sleep deprivation
SpecialtySleep medicine
SymptomsFatigue, eye bags, poor memory, irritable mood, weight gain
ComplicationsCar and work accidents, weight gain, cardiovascular disease
CausesInsomnia, sleep apnea, stimulants (caffeine, amphetamine), voluntary imposition (school, work), mood disorders
TreatmentCognitive behavioral therapy, caffeine (to induce alertness), sleeping pills

The average adult needs to sleep for 7 to 8 hours every 24 hours, and sleep deprivation can occur if they do not get enough sleep. Acute sleep deprivation is when a person sleeps less than usual or does not sleep at all for a short period of time, normally lasting one to two days, but tends to follow the sleepless pattern for longer with no outside factors in play. Chronic sleep deprivation is when a person routinely sleeps less than an optimal amount for optimal functioning. Chronic sleep deficiency is often confused with the term insomnia[citation needed]. Although both chronic sleep deficiency and insomnia share decreased quantity and/or quality of sleep as well as impaired function, their difference lies in the ability to fall asleep. To date, most sleep deprivation studies have focused on acute sleep deprivation, suggesting that acute sleep deprivation can cause significant damage to cognitive and emotional functions and brain mechanisms.

Sleep-deprived people are able to fall asleep rapidly when allowed, but those with insomnia have difficulty falling asleep overall.

The amount of sleep needed can depend on sleep quality, age, pregnancy, and level of sleep deprivation. Insufficient sleep has been linked to weight gain, high blood pressure, diabetes, depression, heart disease, and strokes. Sleep deprivation can also lead to high anxiety, irritability, erratic behavior, poor cognitive functioning and performance, and psychotic episodes.

A chronic sleep-restricted state adversely affects the brain and cognitive function. However, in a subset of cases, sleep deprivation can paradoxically lead to increased energy and alertness; although its long-term consequences have never been evaluated, sleep deprivation has even been used as a treatment for depression.

Few studies have compared the effects of acute total sleep deprivation and chronic partial sleep restriction. A complete absence of sleep over a long period is not frequent in humans (unless they have fatal insomnia or specific issues caused by surgery); it appears that brief microsleeps cannot be avoided. Long-term total sleep deprivation has caused death in lab animals.

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