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Neural circuit

1. Historical Development and Theories: – Treatments of neural networks in historical texts like ‘Principles of Psychology’ and ‘Psychiatry’. – Introduction of Hebbian theory in […]

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1. Historical Development and Theories:
– Treatments of neural networks in historical texts like ‘Principles of Psychology’ and ‘Psychiatry’.
– Introduction of Hebbian theory in 1949 focusing on pre-synaptic and post-synaptic activity.
– Initial works on neural network processing by McCulloch and Pitts in 1959.
– Development of simplified models such as perceptrons to mimic biological neurons.
– Introduction of synaptic transmission models accounting for neural summation and excitatory/inhibitory connections.

2. Neural Connections and Synaptic Mechanisms:
– Complexity of the brain’s neuron connections compared to artificial neural networks.
– Synapses (chemical and electrical) as basic connections between neurons.
– Role of neurexins in establishing synapses.
– Principles of neural summation and excitatory/inhibitory synaptic transmission.
– Various forms of synaptic plasticity influencing individual synapses and neurons.

3. Neural Circuitry and Functional Properties:
– Examples of neural circuits like the trisynaptic circuit in the hippocampus.
– Central pattern generators in the spinal cord controlling rhythmic behaviors.
– Types of neural circuits: diverging, converging, reverberating, and parallel after-discharge.
– Functions of neural circuits in information exchange and rhythmic behavior regulation.
– Characteristics of reverberating and parallel after-discharge circuits.

4. Plasticity, Adaptation, and Study Methods:
– Synaptic plasticity involving changes in synaptic efficacy due to activity.
– Impact of long-term potentiation and depression on memory formation.
– Concept of neuroplasticity resulting from brain changes due to activity or experience.
– Influence of temporal characteristics of synaptic transmission on plasticity.
– Development of neuroimaging techniques for investigating neural circuits and networks.

5. Clinical Significance and Related Topics:
– Pathological neural circuitries leading to conditions like Parkinson’s disease.
– Contribution of issues in the Papez circuit to neurodegenerative disorders.
– Related topics: feedback, regions in the human brain, network science, neural coding, neural engineering.
– References to further reading materials and studies on neural circuits and plasticity.

Neural circuit (Wikipedia)

A neural circuit is a population of neurons interconnected by synapses to carry out a specific function when activated. Multiple neural circuits interconnect with one another to form large scale brain networks.

Anatomy of a multipolar neuron

Neural circuits have inspired the design of artificial neural networks, though there are significant differences.

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