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Seasonal affective disorder

History and Recognition of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD): – SAD was first identified and named in the early 1980s by Norman E. Rosenthal at the […]

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History and Recognition of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD):
– SAD was first identified and named in the early 1980s by Norman E. Rosenthal at the National Institute of Mental Health.
– Research on SAD began in 1979 with the use of a lightbox to treat winter depression.
– A paper on SAD research was published in 1984, leading to increased recognition of the condition.
– SAD shares symptoms with major depressive disorder, with unique seasonal patterns.

Causes and Factors Contributing to Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD):
– SAD may be linked to serotonin and melatonin levels, affected by reduced natural light in winter.
– Women are more affected by SAD, suggesting a reproductive regulation link.
– Some individuals may have a predisposition to SAD based on personality traits.
– Light exposure plays a crucial role in regulating the diurnal cycle, which can impact mood and health.

Diagnosis, Assessment, and Management of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD):
– SAD is a specifier for major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder, with specific diagnostic criteria.
– The Seasonal Pattern Specifier must meet four criteria, including lasting seasonal patterns.
– Treatments for SAD include light therapy, medication, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and ionized-air administration.
– Combining treatments like light therapy and medication can be effective in managing SAD.

Light Therapy and Medication for Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD):
– Light therapy, using specific lux levels, has shown effectiveness in treating SAD.
– Medications like SSRIs and bupropion extended-release can be effective in managing SAD symptoms.
– Vitamin D supplements and 5-HTP have been suggested as treatment options.
– Combining light therapy with medication or other treatments can enhance effectiveness in managing SAD.

Research, Studies, and Alternative Treatments for Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD):
– Studies have shown the effectiveness of light therapy in treating SAD, especially when combined with other interventions.
– Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with mood disorders, emphasizing the importance of adequate levels for mental well-being.
– Alternative treatments such as modafinil, physical exercise, and negative air ionization are being studied for their efficacy in managing SAD.
– Psychological therapies and treatment comparisons are ongoing to improve prevention and management strategies for SAD.

Seasonal affective disorder (Wikipedia)

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a mood disorder subset in which people who typically have normal mental health throughout most of the year exhibit depressive symptoms at the same time each year. It is commonly, but not always, associated with the reductions or increases in total daily sunlight hours that occur during the summer or winter.

Seasonal affective disorder
Other namesSeasonal mood disorder, depressive disorder with seasonal pattern, winter depression, winter blues, January blues, summer depression, seasonal depression
Bright light therapy is a common treatment for seasonal affective disorder and for circadian rhythm sleep disorders.

Common symptoms include sleeping too much, having little to no energy, and overeating. The condition in the summer can include heightened anxiety.

In the DSM-IV and DSM-5, its status as a standalone condition was changed: It is no longer classified as a unique mood disorder, but is now a specifier (called "with seasonal pattern") for recurrent major depressive disorder that occurs at a specific time of the year and fully remits otherwise. Although experts were initially skeptical, this condition is now recognized as a common disorder. The validity of SAD was called into question, however, by a 2016 analysis by the Centers for Disease Control in which no links were detected between depression and seasonality or sunlight exposure.

In the United States, the percentage of the population affected by SAD ranges from 1.4% of the population in Florida to 9.9% in Alaska. SAD was formally described and named in 1984, by Norman E. Rosenthal and colleagues at the National Institute of Mental Health.

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