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Sleep debt

Physiological Effects of Sleep Debt: – Chronic sleep debt significantly impacts metabolic and endocrine processes, especially in overweight individuals. – A study in The Lancet […]

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Physiological Effects of Sleep Debt:
– Chronic sleep debt significantly impacts metabolic and endocrine processes, especially in overweight individuals.
– A study in The Lancet found that restricted or extended sleep periods led to decreased thyrotropin concentrations and impaired carbohydrate tolerance in individuals with sleep debt.
– Sleep-restricted males showed elevated evening cortisol levels and increased sympathetic nervous system activity.
– Chronic sleep debt can result in health issues such as heart disease, kidney disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, and depression.
– The National Institutes of Health states that sleep debt disrupts immune, endocrine, and metabolic functions, exacerbating cardiovascular and age-related illnesses.

Neuropsychological Effects of Sleep Debt on Emotions:
– Short-term sleep deficit intensifies emotional reactions in humans.
– Sleep deficit reduces the functional relationship between the amygdala and mPFC, leading to increased fear and anxiety in response to negative emotional stimuli.
– Continuous sleep debt impairs the modulation of mood states by the amygdala, affecting emotional intensities.
– Adequate uninterrupted sleep is crucial for proper amygdala function in regulating mood states.
– Research indicates that sleep deficit can lead to greater amygdala activation to fearful faces and subjective mood deterioration.

Sleep Debt and Obesity:
– Sleep debt is linked to obesity through disruptions in hormones regulating appetite, increased food consumption, and decreased calorie burning.
– Factors contributing to obesity due to shorter sleep include long working hours, shift work, irregular schedules, multimedia use, and sedentary lifestyles.
– Children consistently show an association between sleep debt and obesity.
– Sleep deprivation leads to an elevated body mass index (BMI) and poor dietary habits.

Sleep Debt and Mortality:
– Short sleep duration predicts mortality, with 5 hours or less correlating with higher mortality rates in individuals under 65.
– Consistent weekday sleep deficit is associated with increased mortality and morbidity.
– Compensating with long weekend sleep can offset the harmful effects of weekday sleep debt.
– Individuals aged 65 and older do not exhibit the same detrimental effects of sleep debt on mortality.
– Studies demonstrate a strong connection between sleep duration, sleep deficit, and mortality rates.

Scientific Debate and Measurement of Sleep Debt:
– There is a debate among researchers on the measurability of sleep debt.
– Cumulative sleep debt affects daytime sleepiness and performance on tasks like the psychomotor vigilance task.
– Sleep deprivation over time worsens performance, with moderate deprivation showing effects similar to total deprivation.
– Various tests, such as multiple sleep latency tests and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, have been used to measure sleep debt.
– Research suggests connections between sleep debt, orexin, amyloid beta, and Alzheimer’s disease through saliva tests for amylase.

Sleep debt (Wikipedia)

Sleep debt or sleep deficit is the cumulative effect of not getting enough sleep. A large sleep debt may lead to mental or physical fatigue, and can adversely affect one's mood, energy, and ability to think clearly.

Main health effects of sleep deprivation, indicating impairment of normal maintenance by sleep

There are two kinds of sleep debt: the result of partial sleep deprivation, and of total sleep deprivation. Partial sleep deprivation occurs when a person or a lab animal sleeps too little for several days or weeks. Total sleep deprivation, on the other hand, occurs when the subject is kept awake for at least 24 hours. There is debate in the scientific community over the specifics of sleep debt (see § Scientific debate), and it is not considered to be a disorder.[citation needed]

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