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Memory consolidation

Historical Development: – Memory consolidation first observed by Quintillian. – Ribot’s Law of Regression proposed in 1882. – Burnham’s paper integrated findings from psychology and […]

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Historical Development:
– Memory consolidation first observed by Quintillian.
– Ribot’s Law of Regression proposed in 1882.
– Burnham’s paper integrated findings from psychology and neurology.
– Term ‘consolidation’ coined by Müller and Pilzecker.
– Studies on anterograde amnesia started in the 1960s and 1970s.

Mechanisms of Memory Consolidation:
– Synaptic consolidation: Faster than systems consolidation, involves late-phase LTP.
– Standard model: Involves alterations in synaptic protein synthesis, membrane potential, and gene expression.
– Long-term potentiation: Prolonged strengthening of synaptic transmission crucial for memory.
– Spacing effect: Distributed learning enhances memory consolidation and retention.
– Systems consolidation: Reorganization process from hippocampus to neo-cortex.

Different Types of Memories and Consolidation:
– Semantic vs. Episodic Memory: Rely on different systems, with episodic memories significantly involving the hippocampus.
– Declarative vs. Procedural Knowledge Consolidation: Declarative involves conscious recall, while procedural knowledge can exist without awareness.
– Emotional and Stressful Memory Consolidation: Involves the amygdala and stress hormones like epinephrine.
– Sleep Consolidation: REM sleep is essential for memory consolidation, with slow-wave sleep aiding in the process.

Reconsolidation Theory:
– Active process of recalling and consolidating previously stored memories.
– Criticisms and distinctions from consolidation.
– Application in psychotherapy and potential for permanent change.
– Mechanisms, factors influencing, and neurobiological perspectives on memory consolidation.

Research and Advancements:
– Studies on protein synthesis, long-term potentiation, and gene expression in memory consolidation.
– Factors influencing memory consolidation like dietary flavonoids and contextual enrichment.
– Neurobiological perspectives on memory consolidation involving hippocampal complex and amygdala.
– Memory consolidation and synaptic plasticity, including the synaptic tagging and capture hypothesis.
– Extensive research on memory consolidation in neuroscience and psychology fields.

Memory consolidation (Wikipedia)

Memory consolidation is a category of processes that stabilize a memory trace after its initial acquisition. A memory trace is a change in the nervous system caused by memorizing something. Consolidation is distinguished into two specific processes. The first, synaptic consolidation, which is thought to correspond to late-phase long-term potentiation, occurs on a small scale in the synaptic connections and neural circuits within the first few hours after learning. The second process is systems consolidation, occurring on a much larger scale in the brain, rendering hippocampus-dependent memories independent of the hippocampus over a period of weeks to years. Recently, a third process has become the focus of research, reconsolidation, in which previously consolidated memories can be made labile again through reactivation of the memory trace.

position of consolidation to the information-to-memory process
The line processes to make information memory
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