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Night eating syndrome

1. Presentation of Night Eating Syndrome: – NES characterized by delayed circadian pattern of food intake – Originally described by Albert Stunkard in 1955 – […]

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1. Presentation of Night Eating Syndrome:
– NES characterized by delayed circadian pattern of food intake
– Originally described by Albert Stunkard in 1955
– Included in DSM-5 as other specified feeding or eating disorder
– Research diagnostic criteria include evening hyperphagia and nocturnal awakening
– Associated symptoms include lack of appetite in the morning, urges to eat at night, belief in eating to fall back asleep, depressed mood, and difficulty sleeping

2. Prevalence, Impact, and Comorbidities:
– Affects 1-2% of general population and around 10% of obese individuals
– Onset typically in early adulthood and long-lasting
– Associated with higher depression scores and low self-esteem
– Relationship with parasomnia SRED needs further clarification
– Consumption of serotonin-containing foods suggested for treatment but effectiveness debated
– 28% of individuals seeking gastric bypass surgery found to have NES
– Night eating associated with diabetic complications
– Often co-occurs with depressed mood and anxiety disorders
– Not all individuals with NES are overweight
– Research indicates NES may have familial patterns

3. Treatment and Management of Night Eating Syndrome:
– Serotonin-rich foods suggested but their impact on brain serotonin levels unclear
– Clinical trials of sertraline for NES treatment have been conducted
– Prophylactic diet proposed as a treatment for NES
– Night eating patterns of patients with bulimia nervosa studied
– Adverse effects of night-eating symptoms on diabetes treatment adherence explored

4. Research and Studies on Night Eating Syndrome:
– Proposed diagnostic criteria for NES have been published
– Studies on neuroendocrine profiles associated with NES
– Exploration of typology of NES
– Descriptive studies on nighttime eating behavior
– Research on the prevalence and impact of NES in youth

5. Specific Studies on Night Eating Syndrome:
– Relationship between NES and depression among college students
– Focus on daily and nightly anxiety among patients with NES and binge eating disorder
– Psychological and behavioral characteristics of binge eating disorder and NES
– Study on non-obese individuals with NES compared to a weight-matched group

Night eating syndrome (Wikipedia)

Night eating syndrome (NES) is an eating disorder, characterized by a delayed circadian pattern of food intake. Although there is some degree of comorbidity with binge eating disorder, it differs from binge eating in that the amount of food consumed in the night is not necessarily objectively large nor is a loss of control over food intake required. It was originally described by Albert Stunkard in 1955 and is currently included in the other specified feeding or eating disorder category of the DSM-5. Research diagnostic criteria have been proposed and include evening hyperphagia (consumption of 25% or more of the total daily calories after the evening meal) and/or nocturnal awakening and ingestion of food two or more times per week. The person must have awareness of the night eating to differentiate it from the parasomnia sleep-related eating disorder (SRED). Three of five associated symptoms must also be present: lack of appetite in the morning, urges to eat at night, belief that one must eat in order to fall back to sleep at night, depressed mood, and/or difficulty sleeping.

Night eating syndrome
SpecialtyPsychiatry
ComplicationsObesity
Frequency1–2% (general population), approximately 10% of overweight individuals

NES affects both men and women, between 1 and 2% of the general population, and approximately 10% of obese individuals. The age of onset is typically in early adulthood (spanning from late teenage years to late twenties) and is often long-lasting, with children rarely reporting NES. People with NES have been shown to have higher scores for depression and low self-esteem, and it has been demonstrated that nocturnal levels of the hormones melatonin and leptin are decreased. The relationship between NES and the parasomnia SRED is in need of further clarification. There is debate as to whether these should be viewed as separate diseases, or part of a continuum. Consuming foods containing serotonin has been suggested to aid in the treatment of NES, but other research indicates that diet by itself cannot appreciably raise serotonin levels in the brain. A few foods (for example, bananas) contain serotonin, but they do not affect brain serotonin levels, and various foods contain tryptophan, but the extent to which they affect brain serotonin levels must be further explored scientifically before conclusions can be drawn, and "the idea, common in popular culture, that a high-protein food such as turkey will raise brain tryptophan and serotonin is, unfortunately, false."

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