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Education and Training in Neurosurgery: – Different countries have varying requirements for practicing neurosurgery. – In the United States, the path to becoming a neurosurgeon […]

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Education and Training in Neurosurgery:
– Different countries have varying requirements for practicing neurosurgery.
– In the United States, the path to becoming a neurosurgeon includes four years of undergraduate education, four years of medical school, and seven years of residency.
– Specialized training through fellowships is available in areas like pediatric neurosurgery and neuro-oncology in the U.S.
– In the UK, aspiring neurosurgeons must complete medical school, gain the MBBS qualification, and undergo around eight years of training.
– In India, becoming a neurosurgeon requires an MBBS degree followed by specialized training, either through general surgery residency or direct neurosurgical residency.

History and Advancements in Neurosurgery:
– Neurosurgery has ancient roots, with practices like trepanation dating back to civilizations like the Incas.
– Notable advancements include the first successful brain tumor removal in 1879 and the development of electrodes in the brain for breakthroughs like the cochlear implant.
– Modern neurosurgical tools like chisels, forceps, power tools, and robots have greatly advanced the field.
– Medicine shifted to a tissue- and organ-based approach in the last few hundred years, with significant developments in neuroanesthesia and surgical techniques.
– The World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) was founded in 1955 and represents around 50,000 neurosurgeons worldwide.

Neurosurgical Techniques and Procedures:
– Various imaging methods are used for diagnosis and treatment in neurosurgery.
– Conventional neurosurgery involves opening the skull, while microsurgery techniques are used for precise procedures like EC-IC bypass surgery.
– Stereotaxy allows for precise brain targeting through minimal openings, and minimally invasive endoscopic surgery is common for certain conditions.
– Neurosurgical procedures cover conditions like meningitis, spinal disc herniation, hydrocephalus, and head trauma.
– Awake brain surgery is used for tumors invading critical brain regions and combating epileptic seizures.

Notable Neurosurgeons and Innovations:
– Notable neurosurgeons include pioneers like Harvey Cushing, Alim-Louis Benabid, and Ben Carson.
– Innovations in neurosurgery include the development of awake craniotomy, the Cyberknife, and deep brain stimulation surgery.
– The field has seen advancements like the Gamma Knife and significant contributions from figures like Walter Dandy and Henry Marsh.
– Recovery after neurosurgery involves managing postoperative pain, with treatment options like NSAIDs and techniques to reduce pain.
– Procedures in neurosurgery range from spinal surgeries to deep brain stimulators for chronic pain management.

Publications, Societies, and Specializations in Neurosurgery:
– Prominent organizations in neurosurgery include the American Association of Neurological Surgeons and the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies.
– Journals like ‘World Neurosurgery’ and ‘Journal of Neurosurgery’ feature essential research articles in the field.
– Specialized branches like vascular neurosurgery and neuropathology co-exist with general neurosurgery, focusing on specific conditions and diseases.
– Neuroanesthesia is a field within anesthesiology that focuses on supporting neurosurgical procedures.
– Global neurosurgery is emerging as a subspecialty, with a focus on ensuring an adequate neurosurgical workforce for the 21st century.

Neurosurgery (Wikipedia)

Neurosurgery or neurological surgery, known in common parlance as brain surgery, is the medical specialty concerned with the surgical treatment of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nervous system.

Stereotactic guided insertion of DBS electrodes in neurosurgery
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