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Neuroscience

History and Development of Neuroscience: – Early studies in ancient Egypt on the nervous system – Hippocrates challenging the heart as the seat of intelligence […]

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History and Development of Neuroscience:

– Early studies in ancient Egypt on the nervous system
– Hippocrates challenging the heart as the seat of intelligence
– Galen observing brain damage affecting mental faculties
– Renaissance contributions by Vesalius, Descartes, Willis, Swammerdam
– Golgi stain allowing visualization of individual neurons
– Academic recognition as a distinct discipline in the 20th century
– Notable figures like Eric Kandel, Santiago Ramón y Cajal, and Paul Broca
– Advancements in understanding neurons by Galvani, du Bois-Reymond, and Ramón y Cajal
– Modern neuroscience’s focus on molecular biology, electrophysiology, and computational neuroscience

Neuroscience Techniques and Approaches:

– Multidisciplinary nature combining various fields
– Evolution of techniques from molecular to brain imaging
– Study of neurons, glia, and neural circuits
– Understanding the biological basis of learning, memory, and behavior
– Techniques evolving with microscope invention and staining procedures
– Molecular neuroscience focusing on neuron expression and response to signals
– Cellular neuroscience exploring signal processing by neurons
– Interest in neuron morphology, molecular identity, and physiological characteristics

Key Figures and Academic Contributions in Neuroscience:

– Contributions by Vesalius, Descartes, Willis, Swammerdam in the Renaissance
– Notable figures like Eric Kandel, Santiago Ramón y Cajal, and Paul Broca
– Academic developments by David Rioch, Francis O. Schmitt, and Stephen Kuffler
– Mapping brain functions by Wilder Penfield during epilepsy treatment
– Notable discoveries by Alan Hodgkin and Andrew Huxley in neuron signal transmission

Organizations and Applied Disciplines in Neuroscience:

– Founding of organizations like IBRO, ISN, EBBS, and Society for Neuroscience
– Applications of neuroscience in neuroeconomics, neuroeducation, neuroethics, and neurolaw
– Practical applications in various fields due to neuroscience research
– Philosophical, experimental, and theoretical phases of brain research
– Predicted importance of neural implants and brain simulation in the future

Technological Advances in Neuroscience:

– Progress driven by technology improvements like electron microscopy and genetics
– Major drivers including computer science and genetics
– Advancements in brain cell classification through electrophysiological recording and genetic sequencing
– Patch-sequencing method combining electrophysiology, genetics, and microscopy
– Identification of fundamental cell type similarities across species like humans and mice

Neuroscience (Wikipedia)

Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system (the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nervous system), its functions and disorders. It is a multidisciplinary science that combines physiology, anatomy, molecular biology, developmental biology, cytology, psychology, physics, computer science, chemistry, medicine, statistics, and mathematical modeling to understand the fundamental and emergent properties of neurons, glia and neural circuits. The understanding of the biological basis of learning, memory, behavior, perception, and consciousness has been described by Eric Kandel as the "epic challenge" of the biological sciences.

Drawing by Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1899) of neurons in the pigeon cerebellum

The scope of neuroscience has broadened over time to include different approaches used to study the nervous system at different scales. The techniques used by neuroscientists have expanded enormously, from molecular and cellular studies of individual neurons to imaging of sensory, motor and cognitive tasks in the brain.

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