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Western Christianity

Group 1: History and Origins of Western Christianity – Western Christianity developed alongside Eastern Christianity – Latin Church emerged under the bishop of Rome – […]

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Group 1: History and Origins of Western Christianity
– Western Christianity developed alongside Eastern Christianity
– Latin Church emerged under the bishop of Rome
– Cultural and political divides between Latin West and Hellenistic East
– Latin became the principal language in Western Christianity
– Origins of Western Christianity in the division between Western and Eastern Roman Empires
– Latin translation of the Bible in the 2nd century
– Influence of Rome on Western Christianity
– Focus on Rome in the West and Constantinople in the East

Group 2: Schisms and Doctrinal Differences
– Disagreements over doctrine and ecclesiology leading to schism
– Separation from East Syriac Christianity after the Council of Ephesus
– Separation from Oriental Orthodoxy after the Council of Chalcedon
– East-West Schism of 1054 separating Eastern Orthodoxy
– Challenges and failed reunion agreements
– Theological differences such as the Filioque clause
– Date of Easter discrepancies between Eastern and Western Christianity
– Lack of essence-energies distinction in Western Christianity

Group 3: Influence on Western Civilization
– Catholic Church’s role in shaping Western civilization
– Impact of Protestantism on divisions within Western Christianity
– Wars with religious causes like the Anglo-Spanish War of 1585–1604
– Spread of Western Christianity to the New World
– Geographical distinctions between Western and Eastern Christianity today

Group 4: Beliefs and Theological Differences
– Concept of Original Sin in Western Christianity
– Various interpretations of original sin among theologians
– Filioque clause differences between Western and Eastern Christianity
– Date of Easter discrepancies due to calendar variations
– Lack of essence-energies distinction in Western Christianity

Group 5: Denominations and Major Figures
– Western Christianity representing about 90% of global Christians
– Catholic Church comprising over half of Western Christians
– Various Protestant denominations making up the remaining 40%
– Examples of small Protestant churches like the Moravian Church and Waldensians
– Major figures in Western Christianity including the Bishop of Rome, Reformers, and key figures in the Protestant Reformation

Western Christianity (Wikipedia)

Western Christianity is one of two subdivisions of Christianity (Eastern Christianity being the other). Western Christianity is composed of the Latin Church and Western Protestantism, together with their offshoots such as the Old Catholic Church, Independent Catholicism and Restorationism.

Jesus represented as the Lamb of God (Agnus Dei), a common practice in Western Christianity
St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City, the largest church building in the world today
Timeline of the evolution of the church, beginning with early Christianity

The large majority of the world's 2.3 billion Christians are Western Christians (about 2 billion – 1.2 billion Latin Catholic and 800 million Protestant). One major component, the Latin Church, developed under the bishop of Rome. Out of the Latin Church emerged a wide variety of independent Protestant denominations, including Lutheranism and Anglicanism, starting from the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century, as did Independent Catholicism in the 19th century. Thus, the term "Western Christianity" does not describe a single communion or religious denomination, but is applied to distinguish all these denominations collectively from Eastern Christianity.

The establishment of the distinct Latin Church, a particular church sui iuris of the Catholic Church, coincided with the consolidation of the Holy See in Rome, which claimed primacy since Antiquity. The Latin Church is distinct from the Eastern Catholic Churches, also in full communion with the Pope in Rome, and from the Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodox Churches, which are not in communion with Rome. These other churches are part of Eastern Christianity. The terms "Western" and "Eastern" in this regard originated with geographical divisions mirroring the cultural divide between the Hellenistic east and Latin West, and the political divide between the Western and Eastern Roman empires. During the Middle Ages adherents of the Latin Church, irrespective of ethnicity, commonly referred to themselves as "Latins" to distinguish themselves from Eastern Christians.

Western Christianity has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization. With the expansion of European colonialism from the Early Modern era, the Latin Church, in time along with its Protestant secessions, spread throughout the Americas, much of the Philippines, Southern Africa, pockets of West Africa, and throughout Australia and New Zealand. Thus, when used for historical periods after the 16th century, the term "Western Christianity" does not refer to a particular geographical area, but is rather used as a collective term for all these.

Today, the geographical distinction between Western and Eastern Christianity is not nearly as absolute as in Antiquity or the Middle Ages, due to the spread of Christian missionaries, migrations, and globalisation. As such, the adjectives "Western Christianity" and "Eastern Christianity" are typically used to refer to historical origins and differences in theology and liturgy, rather than present geographical locations.[citation needed]

While the Latin Church maintains the use of the Latin liturgical rites, Protestant denominations and Independent Catholicism use a wide variety of liturgical practices.

The earliest concept of Europe as a cultural sphere (instead of simply a geographic term) appeared during the Carolingian Renaissance of the 9th century, which included territories which practiced Western Christianity at the time.

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