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Walking

Group 1: Walking Mechanics and Evolution – Walking is distinguished from running by the fact that only one foot at a time leaves contact with […]

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Group 1: Walking Mechanics and Evolution

– Walking is distinguished from running by the fact that only one foot at a time leaves contact with the ground.
– Walking speed averages around 5.0 km/h or 3.1 mph.
– Walking among tetrapods likely originated underwater with air-breathing fish.
– Bipedal walking was among the first defining characteristics to emerge in hominin ancestors.
– Human walking gait differs significantly from other primates due to metabolic energy efficiency.
– Longer legs and specific hipbone orientation contribute to improved walking energy economy in humans.
– Walking is believed to have evolved from underwater walking in air-breathing fish.
– Bipedal walking was selectively advantageous in hominin ancestors due to metabolic energy efficiency.
– Human walking gait differs significantly from other primates, like chimpanzees.
– Longer legs and specific hipbone orientation in humans contribute to improved walking energy economy.
– Walking among tetrapods likely originated underwater before the emergence of land-dwelling life.
– Neural mechanisms for walking evolved in demersal fish at least 420 million years ago.

Group 2: Health Benefits of Walking

– Regular walking can improve confidence, stamina, energy, and weight control.
– Walking may benefit the mind by improving memory skills, concentration, and creativity.
– Walking for 30-60 minutes a day, five days a week, can improve health.
– Walking reduces mortality rates from all causes, especially among individuals with diabetes.
– Studies show that walking at least 2,337 steps a day reduces the risk of dying from cardiovascular diseases.
– Walking linked to reduced mortality among U.S. adults.
– Relationship of walking intensity to total and cause-specific mortality.
– Walking 4,000 steps a day reduces the risk of dying.
– Walking for longer life expectancy.
– Various sources highlighting the importance of walking for health.

Group 3: Variants and Techniques of Walking

– Nordic walking involves specially designed poles for greater intensity.
– Snow shoeing distributes weight over a larger area to walk on snow.
– Cross-country skiing originated as a means of travel in deep snow.
– Beach walking is a sport on compact or non-compact sand.
– Techniques like Power Walking and Fit Walking are part of speed walking.
– Afghan Walking involves rhythmic breathing synchronized with walking.
– Backward walking engages different muscles and improves balance.
– Proper walking technique resources from Mayo Clinic and Harvard Health.
– Footprints showing human ancestor stride.
– Chimpanzee locomotor energetics and human bipedalism origins.
– Hip extensor mechanics in human evolution of walking.
– Benefits of the long Achilles tendon in human walking and running.

Group 4: Walking in Different Environments and Activities

– Walking is a popular form of recreation and exercise.
– Different types of walking include bushwalking, racewalking, beach walking, and hiking.
– Guided walking tours and trekking holidays are popular tourist activities.
– Systems of trails exist in many countries like Canada, the US, and Nepal.
– Rambling organizations like The Ramblers in Britain support walkers.
– Urban planners focus on creating pedestrian-friendly areas for commuting and recreation.
– Walkability measures the friendliness of an area to walking.
– Various studies on walking mechanics and benefits in different contexts.
– Defining scrambles in mountaineering.
– Skills for backcountry skiing and ski mountaineering.

Group 5: Robotics and Mathematical Models of Walking

– Early successful walking robots had six legs.
– ASIMO is an example of a robot that can walk on two legs.
– Robots still do not walk as efficiently as humans.
– Walking robots often need to keep their knees bent permanently for stability.
– Rule-based models integrate past literature on motor control to generate simple rules for walking.
– Weakly coupled phase oscillators models represent cyclical dynamics as a set of oscillators.
– Control-based models optimize control parameters based on anatomical descriptions to generate behavior.
– Phenomenological models fit equations directly to kinematics to model walking trajectories.
– Mathematical models explore different aspects of walking kinematics and behaviors.

Walking (Wikipedia)

Walking (also known as ambulation) is one of the main gaits of terrestrial locomotion among legged animals. Walking is typically slower than running and other gaits. Walking is defined by an "inverted pendulum" gait in which the body vaults over the stiff limb or limbs with each step. This applies regardless of the usable number of limbs—even arthropods, with six, eight, or more limbs, walk. In humans, walking has health benefits including improved mental health and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and death.

Computer simulation of a human walk cycle. In this model the head keeps the same level at all times, whereas the hip follows a sine curve.
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