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Urination

Anatomy and Physiology of Urination: – Main organs involved: urinary bladder and urethra. – Bladder’s detrusor muscle innervated by sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers. – Role […]

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Anatomy and Physiology of Urination:
– Main organs involved: urinary bladder and urethra.
– Bladder’s detrusor muscle innervated by sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers.
– Role of pelvic nerves in the voiding reflex.
– Control of external urethral sphincters by somatic pudendal nerve.
– Changes in bladder epithelium structure based on distension levels.
– Micturition as a spinobulbospinal reflex regulated by brain centers like the pontine micturition center.
– Involvement of autonomic and somatic nervous systems in controlling micturition muscles.

Physiology of Urination:
– Micturition reflex controlled by brain signals and sensory fibers.
– Storage and voiding phases in the lower urinary tract.
– Influence of bladder volume and afferent firing rates on bladder relaxation and contraction.
– Development of voluntary inhibition of micturition in toddlers.
– Bladder pressure regulation during storage.

Urination Process:
– Triggers of bladder contractions for urine flow.
– Duration of urination in large land mammals.
– Post-urination shivering in some individuals.
– Female urethra emptying post-urination.
– Voluntary control mechanisms and initiation methods.

Experience and Disorders of Urination:
– Sensation of need to urinate correlating with bladder fullness.
– Conditions affecting urination experience like micturition syncope and paruresis.
– Effects of medications like diuretics and antidiuretics on urine production.
– Experimentally induced disorders due to neural lesions.
– Techniques and tools for urination after injury.

Social, Cultural, and Other Aspects of Urination:
– Social acceptance and facilities for urination.
– Cultural differences in urination practices.
– Toilet training and nocturnal enuresis in children.
– Alternative urination tools and techniques.
– Urination in males and females, including positions and historical references.

Urination (Wikipedia)

Urination is the release of urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. Urine is released from the urethra through the penis or vulva in placental mammals and through the cloaca in other vertebrates. It is the urinary system's form of excretion. It is also known medically as micturition, voiding, uresis, or, rarely, emiction, and known colloquially by various names including peeing, weeing, pissing, and euphemistically going (for a) number one. The process of urination is under voluntary control in healthy humans and other animals, but may occur as a reflex in infants, some elderly individuals, and those with neurological injury. It is normal for adult humans to urinate up to seven times during the day.

Manneken Pis depicts a urinating boy (puer mingens) in a standing position.
Jeanneke Pis portrays a girl squatting to urinate.

In some animals, in addition to expelling waste material, urination can mark territory or express submissiveness. Physiologically, urination involves coordination between the central, autonomic, and somatic nervous systems. Brain centres that regulate urination include the pontine micturition center, periaqueductal gray, and the cerebral cortex.

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