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Torah

Meaning and Names: – Torah is derived from the root ירה, meaning to guide or teach – It means teaching, doctrine, or instruction – Greek […]

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Meaning and Names:
– Torah is derived from the root ירה, meaning to guide or teach
– It means teaching, doctrine, or instruction
– Greek translations used the word nomos to mean doctrine or law
– Torah encompasses Rabbinic Judaism’s written and oral law
– It is also used to refer to the entire Hebrew Bible

Alternative Names:
– Christian scholars refer to the first five books as the Pentateuch
– In Arabic, it is known as Tawrat, an Islamic holy book
– The Greek term pentáteukhos means five scrolls
– Tawrat is the Arabic name for the Torah in Islam
– Different translations in English include custom, theory, guidance, or system

Contents:
– The Torah begins with the creation of the world
– It narrates the history of the people of Israel
– The Torah includes religious obligations and civil laws
– Genesis is the first book, divided into Primeval and Ancestral history
– It sets out concepts of deity and humankind’s relationship with God

Exodus:
– Exodus is the second book of the Torah
– It tells the story of Israelites leaving slavery in Egypt
– The Plagues of Egypt are inflicted on their captors
– Moses leads the Israelites to Mount Sinai
– Yahweh promises them the land of Canaan in return for faithfulness

Torah (Wikipedia)

The Torah (/ˈtɔːrə, ˈtrə/; Biblical Hebrew: תּוֹרָה Tōrā, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") is the compilation of the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, namely the books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy. The Torah is known as the Pentateuch (/ˈpɛntətjk/) or the Five Books of Moses by Christians. It is also known as the Written Torah (תּוֹרָה שֶׁבִּכְתָב, Tōrā šebbīḵṯāv) in Rabbinical Jewish tradition. If meant for liturgic purposes, it takes the form of a Torah scroll (Sefer Torah or ספר תורה). If in bound book form, it is called Chumash, and is usually printed with the rabbinic commentaries (perushim).

An opened Torah scroll (Book of Genesis part).

In rabbinic literature, the word Torah denotes both the five books (תורה שבכתב "Torah that is written") and the Oral Torah (תורה שבעל פה, "Torah that is spoken"). It has also been used, however, to designate the entire Hebrew Bible. The Oral Torah consists of interpretations and amplifications which according to rabbinic tradition have been handed down from generation to generation and are now embodied in the Talmud and Midrash. Rabbinic tradition's understanding is that all of the teachings found in the Torah (both written and oral) were given by their God through the prophet Moses, some at Mount Sinai and others at the Tabernacle, and all the teachings were written down by Moses, which resulted in the Torah that exists today. According to the Midrash, the Torah was created prior to the creation of the world, and was used as the blueprint for Creation. Though hotly debated, the general trend in biblical scholarship is to recognize the final form of the Torah as a literary and ideological unity, based on earlier sources, largely complete by the Persian period, with possibly some later additions during the Hellenistic period.

Traditionally, the words of the Torah are written on a scroll by a scribe (sofer) in Hebrew. A Torah portion is read every Monday morning and Thursday morning at a shul (synagogue) but only if there are ten males above the age of thirteen. Reading the Torah publicly is one of the bases of Jewish communal life. The Torah is also considered a sacred book outside Judaism; in Samaritanism, the Samaritan Pentateuch is a text of the Torah written in the Samaritan script and used as sacred scripture by the Samaritans; the Torah is also common among all the different versions of the Christian Old Testament; in Islam, the Tawrat (Arabic: توراة‎) is the Arabic name for the Torah within its context as an Islamic holy book believed by Muslims to have been given by God to the prophets and messengers amongst the Children of Israel.

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