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1. Stimulant Overview: – Definition: Stimulants increase central nervous system and body activity. – Effects: Acute effects include enhanced focus, sociability, and libido. Chronic use […]

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1. Stimulant Overview:
– Definition: Stimulants increase central nervous system and body activity.
– Effects: Acute effects include enhanced focus, sociability, and libido. Chronic use may lead to negative health risks.
– Mechanism of Action: Stimulants affect neurotransmitter levels, regulating arousal, learning, and emotion.
– History and Uses: Used for medical conditions like ADHD, narcolepsy, and depression, as well as for recreational and performance-enhancing purposes.
– Risks and Side Effects: Potential risks include addiction, tolerance, and withdrawal, with side effects like anxiety, insomnia, and neurotoxicity.

2. Medical Uses:
– Widely used as prescription medicines and for performance enhancement.
– Commonly prescribed stimulants include lisdexamfetamine, methylphenidate, and amphetamine.
– Used in treating conditions like obesity, sleep disorders, mood disorders, and impulse control disorders.

3. Chemistry and Classes:
– Classifying stimulants is complex due to various classes like phenethylamines and substituted amphetamines.
– Substituted amphetamines activate trace amine-associated receptor 1, increasing neurotransmitter concentrations.
– Amphetamines, including methamphetamine and MDMA, primarily work by activating TAAR1 and increasing neurotransmitter levels.
– Cocaine analogs have been developed, maintaining a benzyloxy connection to the tropane structure.

4. Specific Stimulant Types:
– Amphetamine: Used for ADHD and narcolepsy, with potential for off-label use for cognitive enhancement.
– Caffeine: Found in coffee, tea, and energy drinks, regulating caffeine products due to overdose risks.
– Ephedrine: A sympathomimetic amine used as a stimulant and decongestant.
– MDMA: A euphoriant and stimulant, listed as a Schedule I controlled substance by the DEA.

5. Notable Stimulant Compounds:
– MDPV: A psychoactive drug with stimulant properties associated with psychological and physical harm.
– Mephedrone: A synthetic stimulant with neurotoxic and abuse potential.
– Methamphetamine: A potent psychostimulant with high abuse potential and neurotoxic effects.
– Methylphenidate: A stimulant drug used for ADHD and narcolepsy, sold under brand names like Ritalin.
– Cocaine: Derived from coca shrub leaves, with high abuse potential and strictly controlled use.

Stimulant (Wikipedia)

Stimulants (also known as central nervous system stimulants, or psychostimulants, or colloquially as uppers) are a class of drugs that increase the activity of the brain and the spinal cord. They are used for various purposes, such as enhancing alertness, attention, motivation, cognition, mood, and physical performance. Some of the most common stimulants are caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine, and modafinil.

Ritalin: 20 mg sustained-release (SR) tablets

Stimulants work by affecting the levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, histamine and acetylcholine, in the synapses between neurons. These neurotransmitters regulate various functions, such as arousal, the reward system, learning, memory, and emotion. By increasing their availability, stimulants can produce a range of effects, from mild stimulation to euphoria, depending on the dose, route of administration, and individual factors.

Stimulants have a long history of use, both for medical and non-medical purposes. They have been used to treat various conditions, such as narcolepsy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obesity, depression, and fatigue. They have also been used as recreational drugs, performance-enhancing substances, and cognitive enhancers, by various groups of people, such as students, athletes, workers, and soldiers.

However, stimulants also have potential risks and side effects, such as addiction, tolerance, withdrawal, psychosis, anxiety, insomnia, cardiovascular problems, and neurotoxicity. The misuse and abuse of stimulants can lead to serious health and social consequences, such as overdose, dependence, crime, and violence. Therefore, the use of stimulants is regulated by laws and policies in most countries, and requires medical supervision and prescription in some cases.

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