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Stereotypy

Group 1: Characteristics of Stereotypy – Stereotypies are patterned and periodic – Aggravated by fatigue, stress, and anxiety – Usually begin before age three – […]

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Group 1: Characteristics of Stereotypy

– Stereotypies are patterned and periodic
– Aggravated by fatigue, stress, and anxiety
– Usually begin before age three
– Involve more of the body than tics
– Associated with engrossment in activities
– Stereotypies are more rhythmic and less random
– Arm flapping is a common stereotypy
– Tics have a waxing and waning nature
– Tics are usually suppressible for brief periods

Group 2: Proposed Causes of Stereotypy

– Stimming hypothesis suggests sensory function
– Stereotypy discharges tension or expresses frustration
– Communicates a need for attention or reinforcement
– May be learned or neuropathological
– Could be normal behavior with no specific explanation

Group 3: Associated Terms

– Punding: complex, purposeless behavior in chronic amphetamine users
– Punding occurs in Parkinson’s disease
– Tweaking: compulsive behavior in methamphetamine users
– Stereotyped behaviors include sorting, collecting, and assembling
– Punding may be triggered by dopaminergic agents

Group 4: Stereotypies in Animals

– Stereotypies occur in non-human animals
– Considered abnormal behavior, seen in captive animals
– Maladaptive behaviors may involve self-injury
– Stereotyped behaviors seen in primates, birds, and carnivores
– Up to 40% of elephants in zoos display stereotyped behaviors

Group 5: Dopamine Dysregulation Syndrome

– Manifestations, Epidemiology, Mechanisms, and Management
– References to studies and resources related to dopamine dysregulation syndrome, including its manifestations, epidemiology, mechanisms, and management.

Stereotypy (Wikipedia)

A stereotypy (/ˈstɛri.əˌtpi, ˈstɪər-, -i.-/, STERR-ee-ə-ty-pee, STEER-, -⁠ee-oh-) is a repetitive or ritualistic movement, posture, or utterance. Stereotypies may be simple movements such as body rocking, or complex, such as self-caressing, crossing and uncrossing of legs, and marching in place. They are found especially in people with autism spectrum disorders, visually impaired children, and are also found in intellectual disabilities, tardive dyskinesia and stereotypic movement disorder, yet may also be encountered in neurotypical individuals as well. Studies have shown stereotypies to be associated with some types of schizophrenia. Frontotemporal dementia is also a common neurological cause of repetitive behaviors and stereotypies. A number of causes have been hypothesized for stereotypy, and several treatment options are available.

Stereotypy is sometimes called stimming in autism, under the hypothesis that it self-stimulates one or more senses.

Among people with frontotemporal lobar degeneration, more than half (60%) had stereotypies. The time to onset of stereotypies in people with frontotemporal lobar degeneration may be years (average 2.1 years).

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