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Sleep and breathing

Physiological Changes in Breathing During Sleep: – Breathing transitions from wakefulness to sleep due to biological processes. – Minute ventilation reduces during sleep due to […]

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Physiological Changes in Breathing During Sleep:
– Breathing transitions from wakefulness to sleep due to biological processes.
– Minute ventilation reduces during sleep due to decreased metabolism.
– Rib cage contribution to ventilation increases during NREM sleep.
– Airway resistance increases by about 230% during NREM sleep.
– Arterial blood gases show changes in pCO2, pO2, and SaO2 during sleep.

Sleep Stages and Breathing:
– During NREM sleep, we move through three stages, each deeper than the last.
– Minute ventilation decreases by 13% in the second NREM stage and by 15% in the third.
– Rib cage contributes more to ventilation during NREM sleep.
– Upper airway resistance increases significantly during NREM sleep.
– Changes in arterial blood gases occur during NREM sleep.
– Breathing irregularities occur in REM sleep, not controlled by chemoreceptors.
– Minute ventilation decreases in REM sleep compared to wakefulness.
– Intercostal muscle activity decreases in REM sleep.
– Upper airway resistance is highest during REM sleep.
– Changes in arterial blood gases occur during REM sleep.

Effects of Altitude on Sleep and Breathing:
– Disruptions in sleep at high altitudes are linked to changes in respiratory rhythm.
– Variations in sleep time occur at higher altitudes.
– Subjects at high altitudes experience more frequent arousals and diminished deep sleep stages.
– Poorer sleep quality at high altitudes due to more frequent awakenings.
– Changes in altitude affect sleep time and quality, leading to more arousals and less deep sleep stages.

Sleep Apnea:
– Common sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing.
– Can lead to serious health issues and is linked to high blood pressure.
– Diagnosis involves sleep study evaluation, monitoring breathing patterns, assessment of oxygen levels, and medical history review.
– Risk factors include obesity, age over 40, family history of apnea, large neck circumference, and alcohol and sedative use.
– Management options include Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP), lifestyle changes, oral appliances, surgery in severe cases, and regular follow-ups for monitoring.

Effects and Management of Sleep Apnea:
– Effects include daytime fatigue, poor concentration, increased risk of accidents, depression, irritability, and impacts on overall quality of life.

Sleep and breathing (Wikipedia)

When we sleep, our breathing changes due to normal biological processes that affect both our respiratory and muscular systems.

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