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Sigmund Freud

Biography and Early Life: – Sigmund Freud was born in Freiberg, Moravia, Austrian Empire (now Czech Republic) in 1856. – He studied medicine at the […]

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Biography and Early Life:
– Sigmund Freud was born in Freiberg, Moravia, Austrian Empire (now Czech Republic) in 1856.
– He studied medicine at the University of Vienna, graduating in 1881.
– Freud established a clinical practice in Vienna in 1886.
– Due to the Nazi annexation of Austria, Freud fled to London in 1938 where he died in exile in 1939.
– His exceptional academic abilities led him to enter the University of Vienna at 17 to study medicine.

Contributions to Psychology and Psychoanalysis:
– Freud developed psychoanalysis, introducing theories of id, ego, super-ego, and the Oedipus complex.
– He formulated concepts such as libido, death drive, and psychic energy.
– Freud’s therapeutic techniques like free association and the role of transference revolutionized psychoanalytic practice.
– His legacy includes critiquing religion and culture, with psychoanalysis remaining influential in psychology and psychiatry.
– Freud’s ideas have had a lasting impact on fields like psychotherapy and the humanities.

Intellectual Influences and Development of Theories:
– Freud studied under Jean-Martin Charcot in Paris, influencing his shift towards psychopathology.
– He was influenced by thinkers like Brentano, Darwin, Hartmann, Fechner, Herbart, Lipps, Schopenhauer, and Nietzsche.
– Freud’s theories evolved through self-analysis, childhood memories exploration, and famous case studies like the Dora case study.
– The transition from seduction theory to the Oedipus complex marked a significant shift in his work.
– Freud’s development of psychoanalytic theories was a result of incorporating various intellectual influences.

Controversies and Conflicts:
– Freud faced controversies such as rumors of an affair with Carl Jung and disagreements with Wilhelm Fliess.
– His health issues, including buccal cancer from smoking, added to his controversies.
– Freud’s friendship with Fliess ended acrimoniously due to accusations of collusion in plagiarism.
– The split from the International Psychoanalytical Association due to differing views with Adler and Jung led to the formation of separate societies.
– Controversial case studies like the Dora case study and conflicts with colleagues characterized Freud’s career.

Psychoanalytic Movement and Institutional Developments:
– The International Psychoanalytic Association (IPA) was founded in 1910, establishing an international network of societies and clinics.
– Post-World War I, regular biannual Congresses were held, and psychoanalytic societies were established worldwide.
– Institutional developments included the establishment of the Vienna Ambulatorium in 1922 and the London Psychoanalytic Society by Ernest Jones.
– Freud’s escape from Nazism, where his books were burned, highlighted the impact of political events on the psychoanalytic movement.
– Awards and recognitions like the Goethe Prize in 1930 and the establishment of psychoanalytic societies in various countries further solidified Freud’s influence.

Sigmund Freud (Wikipedia)

Sigmund Freud (/frɔɪd/ FROYD, German: [ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfrɔʏt]; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for evaluating and treating pathologies seen as originating from conflicts in the psyche, through dialogue between patient and psychoanalyst, and the distinctive theory of mind and human agency derived from it.

Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
Freud c. 1921
Born
Sigismund Schlomo Freud

(1856-05-06)6 May 1856
Freiberg in Mähren, Moravia, Austrian Empire (now Czech Republic)
Died23 September 1939(1939-09-23) (aged 83)
Hampstead, London, England
Alma materUniversity of Vienna (MD, 1881)
Known forPsychoanalysis, including the theories of id, ego and super-ego, oedipus complex, repression, defence mechanism, stages of psychosexual development
Spouse
(m. 1886)
ChildrenMathilde, Jean-Martin, Oliver, Ernst, Sophie, and Anna
Parents
AwardsGoethe Prize (1930)
Scientific career
FieldsNeurology, psychotherapy, psychoanalysis
Institutions
Academic advisors
Signature

Freud was born to Galician Jewish parents in the Moravian town of Freiberg, in the Austrian Empire. He qualified as a doctor of medicine in 1881 at the University of Vienna. Upon completing his habilitation in 1885, he was appointed a docent in neuropathology and became an affiliated professor in 1902. Freud lived and worked in Vienna having set up his clinical practice there in 1886. Following the German annexation of Austria in March 1938, Freud left Austria to escape Nazi persecution. He died in exile in the United Kingdom in 1939.

In founding psychoanalysis, Freud developed therapeutic techniques such as the use of free association and discovered transference, establishing its central role in the analytic process. Freud's redefinition of sexuality to include its infantile forms led him to formulate the Oedipus complex as the central tenet of psychoanalytical theory. His analysis of dreams as wish-fulfilments provided him with models for the clinical analysis of symptom formation and the underlying mechanisms of repression. On this basis, Freud elaborated his theory of the unconscious and went on to develop a model of psychic structure comprising id, ego and super-ego. Freud postulated the existence of libido, sexualised energy with which mental processes and structures are invested and which generates erotic attachments, and a death drive, the source of compulsive repetition, hate, aggression, and neurotic guilt. In his later work, Freud developed a wide-ranging interpretation and critique of religion and culture.

Though in overall decline as a diagnostic and clinical practice, psychoanalysis remains influential within psychology, psychiatry, psychotherapy, and across the humanities. It thus continues to generate extensive and highly contested debate concerning its therapeutic efficacy, its scientific status, and whether it advances or hinders the feminist cause. Nonetheless, Freud's work has suffused contemporary Western thought and popular culture. W. H. Auden's 1940 poetic tribute to Freud describes him as having created "a whole climate of opinion / under whom we conduct our different lives".

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