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History of Shopping: – Marketplaces and fairs facilitated goods exchange in antiquity – Emergence of permanent shops in populous European cities by 13th century – […]

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History of Shopping:
– Marketplaces and fairs facilitated goods exchange in antiquity
– Emergence of permanent shops in populous European cities by 13th century
– Women responsible for household purchases in Middle Ages
– Limited opportunities to inspect merchandise in Middle Ages
– Shopping lists used by Romans, evidenced near Hadrian’s wall

Shopping Trends and Evolution:
– Emergence of middle class in 17th and 18th-century Europe
– Rising prosperity and social mobility increased disposable income for consumption
– Online shopping disrupts retail industry
– Different shopper types have different motivations and preferences
– Factors influencing shopping experiences include customer service and product variety

Shopping Venues and Centers:
– Marketplaces and fairs established for goods exchange
– Department stores emerged in the US, Britain, and Europe in the mid-1800s
– Paramus malls cater to a diverse range of shoppers
– Traditional marketplaces have evolved into modern shopping centers
– Different types of malls can be found globally, catering to various consumer needs

Retail Strategies and Pricing:
– Stores are tiered based on target demographics and price range
– Pricing strategies include cost-plus pricing, psychological pricing, and haggling
– Window shopping involves browsing goods with or without the intent to purchase
– Retailers use price comparison services to find the best deals
– Haggling is a negotiation tactic used in fixed-price systems

Shopping Habits and Activities:
– Home shopping includes mail, telephone, and online ordering
– Shopping frenzies occur near holidays
– Back-to-school shopping is important for retailers
– Seasonal shopping revolves around buying appropriate clothing
– End-of-season sales offer discounts up to 50%

Shopping (Wikipedia)

Shopping is an activity in which a customer browses the available goods or services presented by one or more retailers with the potential intent to purchase a suitable selection of them. A typology of shopper types has been developed by scholars which identifies one group of shoppers as recreational shoppers, that is, those who enjoy shopping and view it as a leisure activity.

Shoppers at a souk in Tunisia
Advertising image of a man shopping for Christmas presents, United States, 1918
A woman shopping in Japan, 2016

Online shopping has become a major disruptor in the retail industry as consumers can now search for product information and place product orders across different regions. Online retailers deliver their products directly to the consumers' home, offices, or wherever they want. The B2C (business to consumer) process has made it easy for consumers to select any product online from a retailer's website and to have it delivered relatively quickly. Using online shopping methods, consumers do not need to consume energy by physically visiting physical stores. This way they save time and the cost of traveling. A retailer or a shop is a business that presents a selection of goods and offers to trade or sell them to customers for money or other goods.

Shoppers' shopping experiences may vary. They are based on a variety of factors including how the customer is treated, convenience, the type of goods being purchased, and mood.

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