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Sharp waves and ripples

Role of Sharp Waves and Ripples in Memory Consolidation: – Neuronal oscillations are crucial in neuroscience research. – SWRs are the first population activity in […]

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Role of Sharp Waves and Ripples in Memory Consolidation:
– Neuronal oscillations are crucial in neuroscience research.
– SWRs are the first population activity in the developing hippocampus.
– SWRs play a role in memory consolidation.
– Elimination of SWRs affects rats’ spatial memory recall ability.
– SWRs involve synchrony of 50,000–100,000 neurons.
– SWRs play a role in short-term memory conversion to long-term memory.
– Depletion of ripple activity impairs memory formation in rats.
– SPW-R events play a role in stabilizing newly formed memories.

Hippocampal Formation and Trisynaptic Loop:
– Hippocampal oscillations have been a major focus in the last two decades.
– The trisynaptic loop is the main circuit for information transfer in the hippocampus.
– Neuronal populations in the hippocampal circuit are experience-dependent.
– The trisynaptic loop is crucial for long-term potentiation.

Network Mechanisms of Generation of Sharp Waves and Ripples:
– Population bursts in CA3 cause sharp waves and fast ripples in CA1.
– CA1 pyramidal cells firing and interneuron inhibition generate ripples.
– Neocortical inputs via the trisynaptic loop can alter SWRs.
– Thalamocortical inputs influence the content and timing of SWRs.
– CA1 bursts synchronize activity in parahippocampal structures.

Memory Consolidation and Hippocampal Function:
– Sharp waves and ripples are involved in memory consolidation in various species.
– SWRs are crucial for consolidation during immobility and slow-wave sleep.
– The hippocampus is essential for declarative and spatial memory consolidation.

Distinct Patterns in the Hippocampus: Ripples and Fast Gamma:
– Ripples and fast gamma are distinct patterns in the hippocampus.
– Ripples occur when theta waves are absent during sharp waves.
– Fast gamma waves coincide with theta waves and sharp waves.
– The strength of sharp waves influences the magnitude of ripples and fast gamma.
– Ripples dominate in CA1 pyramidal cells, while gamma oscillations are prominent in CA3.

Sharp waves and ripples (Wikipedia)

Sharp waves and ripples (SWRs) are oscillatory patterns produced by extremely synchronised activity of neurons in the mammalian hippocampus and neighbouring regions which occur spontaneously in idle waking states or during NREM sleep. They can be observed with a variety of imaging methods, such as EEG. They are composed of large amplitude sharp waves in local field potential and produced by tens of thousands of neurons firing together within 30–100 ms window. They are some of the most synchronous oscillations patterns in the brain, making them susceptible to pathological patterns such as epilepsy.They have been extensively characterised and described by György Buzsáki and have been shown to be involved in memory consolidation in NREM sleep and the replay of memories acquired during wakefulness.

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