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Sense

Senses and Sensory Organs: – Sense is a biological system for sensation, involving signal collection and transduction. – Sensory organs like eyes, ears, skin, nose, […]

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Senses and Sensory Organs:
– Sense is a biological system for sensation, involving signal collection and transduction.
– Sensory organs like eyes, ears, skin, nose, and mouth correspond to vision, hearing, touch, smell, and taste.
– Internal sensation detects stimuli from internal organs, and different animals have unique sensory systems.
– Some animals can detect electrical and magnetic fields, showcasing diverse sensory capabilities.

Sensory Modalities and Receptors:
– Sensory modalities refer to how information is encoded and can be separated into submodalities.
– Receptors detect sensations and convert physical stimuli into action potentials.
– Receptors are classified based on cell type, position, and function, and can be exteroceptors or interoceptors.
– Different receptor types like mechanoreceptors, photoreceptors, chemoreceptors, etc., interpret stimuli such as pressure, light, taste, temperature, and pain.

Sensory Systems and Thresholds:
– Sensory systems are divided into external and internal systems, with human external senses including sight, hearing, touch, smell, and taste.
– Thresholds like absolute and differential thresholds, Weber’s Law, and Stevens Power Law govern stimulus detection and perception.
– Signal Detection Theory quantifies a subject’s experience with stimuli in noise and explains errors in detection and criteria shifting.
– Sensory adaptation occurs when stimuli are constant, leading to decreased sensitivity and focusing on changes.

Private Perceptive Experience and Fourier Analysis:
– Private perceptive experiences like taste perception variations and implications for health are influenced by genetic differences.
– Fourier analysis in biological systems breaks down complex stimuli into sine wave components, aiding in understanding perception of real-world objects.
– Auditory, vestibular, and visual systems utilize Fourier analysis to encode simpler sounds and images during sensation.
– Philosophy of perception delves into the nature of perceptual experience and the status of perceptual data, with modern scientists mostly holding a materialistic view.

Human Sensation and Visual System:
– Human sensation encompasses absolute thresholds for various senses, multimodal perception, and reliance on sensory organs for vision, hearing, touch, balance, smell, and taste.
– The visual system is based on light transduction through eyes, with rods for sensitivity and cones for color vision.
– Photopigment changes in cones lead to electrical nerve impulses for color perception, while rods provide grayscale vision in low-light conditions.

Sense (Wikipedia)

A sense is a biological system used by an organism for sensation, the process of gathering information about the surroundings through the detection of stimuli. Although, in some cultures, five human senses were traditionally identified as such (namely sight, smell, touch, taste, and hearing), many more are now recognized. Senses used by non-human organisms are even greater in variety and number. During sensation, sense organs collect various stimuli (such as a sound or smell) for transduction, meaning transformation into a form that can be understood by the brain. Sensation and perception are fundamental to nearly every aspect of an organism's cognition, behavior and thought.

Sensation consists of signal collection and transduction.

In organisms, a sensory organ consists of a group of interrelated sensory cells that respond to a specific type of physical stimulus. Via cranial and spinal nerves (nerves of the Central and Peripheral nervous systems that relay sensory information to and from the brain and body), the different types of sensory receptor cells (such as mechanoreceptors, photoreceptors, chemoreceptors, thermoreceptors) in sensory organs transduct sensory information from these organs towards the central nervous system, finally arriving at the sensory cortices in the brain, where sensory signals are processed and interpreted (perceived).

Sensory systems, or senses, are often divided into external (exteroception) and internal (interoception) sensory systems. Human external senses are based on the sensory organs of the eyes, ears, skin, nose, mouth and the vestibular system. Internal sensation detects stimuli from internal organs and tissues. Internal senses possessed by humans include spatial orientation, proprioception (body position) and nociception (pain). Further internal senses lead to signals such as hunger, thirst, suffocation, and nausea, or different involuntary behaviors, such as vomiting. Some animals are able to detect electrical and magnetic fields, air moisture, or polarized light, while others sense and perceive through alternative systems, such as echolocation. Sensory modalities or sub modalities are different ways sensory information is encoded or transduced. Multimodality integrates different senses into one unified perceptual experience. For example, information from one sense has the potential to influence how information from another is perceived. Sensation and perception are studied by a variety of related fields, most notably psychophysics, neurobiology, cognitive psychology, and cognitive science.

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