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Definition and Origin of Qualia: – Qualia are instances of subjective, conscious experience. – The term ‘qualia’ originates from the Latin word ‘quālis.’ – Examples […]

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Definition and Origin of Qualia:
– Qualia are instances of subjective, conscious experience.
– The term ‘qualia’ originates from the Latin word ‘quālis.’
– Examples of qualia include pain, taste, and redness.
– Charles Sanders Peirce introduced the term ‘quale’ in philosophy in 1866.
– Frank Jackson defined qualia as certain features of bodily sensations and perceptual experiences.

Arguments and Thought Experiments on Qualia:
– Qualia cannot be fully conveyed verbally.
– Arguments for qualia often come in the form of thought experiments.
– The inverted spectrum argument supports the existence of qualia.
– Some philosophers question the validity of armchair theorizing in proving the existence of qualia.
– The argument suggests that qualia are non-physical.

Modern Philosophical Perspectives on Qualia:
– The inverted spectrum thought experiment was developed by John Locke.
– Metaphysical identity requires necessity.
– It is conceivable that different qualia could be produced by the same physical brain-state.
– The argument concludes that qualia are non-physical based on conceivability.
– Philosophers like Thomas Nagel and Saul Kripke contribute to discussions on the subjective nature of consciousness and the possibility of entities lacking qualia.

Ethical Implications and Impact of Qualia:
– Hedonistic utilitarianism depends on the existence of qualia.
– Qualia are essential in determining the ethical value of subjective pleasure or pain.
– Raw feels and cooked feels are perceptions considered in isolation from behavioral effects and in terms of their effects on behavior, respectively.
– The idea of qualia impacts ethical theories like hedonistic utilitarianism.
– Understanding qualia is crucial for evaluating the ethical implications of subjective experiences.

Criticism, Debates, and Philosophical Arguments on Qualia:
– The nature and existence of qualia remain controversial.
– Some philosophers, neuroscientists, and neurologists believe in the existence of qualia.
– Daniel Dennett argues against the existence of qualia.
– The debate over qualia often hinges on the definition of the term.
– Philosophical arguments like the zombie argument, explanatory gap problem, and knowledge argument challenge traditional views on qualia and consciousness.

Qualia (Wikipedia)

In philosophy of mind, qualia (/ˈkwɑːliə, ˈkw-/; sg.: quale /-li/) are defined as instances of subjective, conscious experience. The term qualia derives from the Latin neuter plural form (qualia) of the Latin adjective quālis (Latin pronunciation: [ˈkʷaːlɪs]) meaning "of what sort" or "of what kind" in relation to a specific instance, such as "what it is like to taste a specific apple — this particular apple now".

The "redness" of red is a commonly used example of a quale.

Examples of qualia include the perceived sensation of pain of a headache, the taste of wine, and the redness of an evening sky. As qualitative characteristics of sensation, qualia stand in contrast to propositional attitudes, where the focus is on beliefs about experience rather than what it is directly like to be experiencing.

American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce introduced the term quale in philosophy in 1866, and in 1929 C. I. Lewis was the first to use the term "qualia" in its generally agreed upon modern sense. Frank Jackson later defined qualia as "...certain features of the bodily sensations especially, but also of certain perceptual experiences, which no amount of purely physical information includes". Philosopher and cognitive scientist Daniel Dennett suggested that qualia was "an unfamiliar term for something that could not be more familiar to each of us: the ways things seem to us".

The nature and existence of qualia under various definitions remain controversial. Much of the debate over the importance of qualia hinges on the definition of the term, and various philosophers emphasize or deny the existence of certain features of qualia. Some philosophers of mind, like Daniel Dennett, argue that qualia do not exist. Other philosophers, as well as neuroscientists and neurologists, believe qualia exist and that the desire by some philosophers to disregard qualia is based on an erroneous interpretation of what constitutes science.

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