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Psychosis

Psychosis Overview: – Signs and Symptoms: – Difficulties determining reality. – Delusions, hallucinations, incoherent speech, and inappropriate behavior. – Other symptoms include sleep problems, social […]

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Psychosis Overview:
– Signs and Symptoms:
– Difficulties determining reality.
– Delusions, hallucinations, incoherent speech, and inappropriate behavior.
– Other symptoms include sleep problems, social withdrawal, lack of motivation, and difficulty in daily activities.
– Adverse Outcomes:
– Psychosis can lead to serious adverse outcomes.
– Causes:
– Mental illnesses, sensory deprivation, certain medical conditions, medications, and drugs can cause psychosis.
– Epidemiology and History:
– About 3% of people in the US develop psychosis in their lifetime.
– Psychosis has been documented since ancient times, with Hippocrates and the Egyptian Ebers Papyrus mentioning it.

Hallucinations and Delusions:
– Hallucinations:
– Sensory perceptions without external stimuli.
– Types include auditory, visual, and visceral hallucinations.
– Delusions:
– Fixed false beliefs persisting despite evidence to the contrary.
– Types include persecutory, grandeur, and thought insertion delusions.

Diagnosis and Treatment:
– Diagnosis:
– Requires ruling out other potential causes.
– Testing may be needed to identify underlying medical conditions.
– Treatment:
– Includes antipsychotic medication, psychotherapy, and social support.
– Early treatment improves outcomes.
– Medications have a moderate effect on psychosis.

Causes and Risk Factors:
– Psychiatric Disorders:
– Schizophrenia, mood disorders, and other conditions can cause psychosis.
– Trauma and Stress:
– Traumatic events elevate the risk of developing psychotic symptoms.
– Childhood trauma predicts adolescent and adult psychosis.
– Substance-Induced Psychosis:
– Various substances like alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, and amphetamines can cause or worsen psychotic states.

Neurobiology and Miscellaneous:
– Neurobiology:
– Psychosis is linked to dopamine overactivity in the mesolimbic pathway.
– NMDA receptor dysfunction is proposed as a mechanism in psychosis.
– Miscellaneous:
– Studies on dopaminergic dysfunction in alcohol-induced psychosis.
– Ondansetron’s use in psychosis.
– Antipsychotic drugs’ effects on genetic expression.
– Culture:
– Cross-cultural variations in experiences of psychosis and hallucinations.
– Social context shapes how individuals interpret and experience hallucinations.

Psychosis (Wikipedia)

Psychosis is a condition of the mind that results in difficulties determining what is real and what is not real. Symptoms may include delusions and hallucinations, among other features. Additional symptoms are incoherent speech and behavior that is inappropriate for a given situation. There may also be sleep problems, social withdrawal, lack of motivation, and difficulties carrying out daily activities. Psychosis can have serious adverse outcomes.

Psychosis
Other namesPsychotic break (colloquial)
SpecialtyPsychiatry, clinical psychology
SymptomsFalse beliefs, seeing or hearing things that others do not see or hear, incoherent speech and behavior
ComplicationsSelf-harm, suicide
CausesMental illness (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder), trauma, sleep deprivation, some medical conditions, certain medications, drugs (including alcohol, caffeine and cannabis)
TreatmentAntipsychotics, counselling, social support
PrognosisDepends on cause
Frequency3% of people at some point in their life (US)

As with many psychiatric phenomena, psychosis has several different causes. These include mental illness, such as schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, sensory deprivation, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome or cerebral beriberi and in rare cases major depression (psychotic depression). Other causes include: trauma, sleep deprivation, some medical conditions, certain medications, and drugs such as alcohol, cannabis, hallucinogens, and stimulants. One type, known as postpartum psychosis, can occur after giving birth. The neurotransmitter dopamine is believed to play an important role. Acute psychosis is termed primary if it results from a psychiatric condition and secondary if it is caused by another medical condition or drugs. The diagnosis of a mental-health condition requires excluding other potential causes. Testing may be done to check for central nervous system diseases, toxins, or other health problems as a cause.

Treatment may include antipsychotic medication, psychotherapy, and social support. Early treatment appears to improve outcomes. Medications appear to have a moderate effect. Outcomes depend on the underlying cause. In the United States about 3% of people develop psychosis at some point in their lives. The condition has been described since at least the 4th century BC by Hippocrates and possibly as early as 1500 BC in the Egyptian Ebers Papyrus.

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