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Foundations of Psychiatry: – Etymology: ‘Psyche’ means soul or butterfly in ancient Greek. – Coined Term: ‘Psychiatry’ by Johann Christian Reil in 1808. – Focus: […]

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Foundations of Psychiatry:
– Etymology: ‘Psyche’ means soul or butterfly in ancient Greek.
– Coined Term: ‘Psychiatry’ by Johann Christian Reil in 1808.
– Focus: Study, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.
– Specialization: Psychiatrists treat mental illnesses, learning disabilities, and personality disorders.
– Interdisciplinary Approach: Psychiatry integrates social and biological sciences.

Ethics and Controversies in Psychiatry:
– Ethical Guidelines: Issued by the World Psychiatric Association.
– Controversies: Addressed through ethical codes.
– Discredited Practices: Involving Harry Bailey and Donald Ewen Cameron.
– Ethical Concerns: Cover issues like lobotomy and electroconvulsive therapy.
– Ethical Codes: Address confidentiality, euthanasia, and research ethics.

Approaches and Treatment in Psychiatry:
– Biomedical vs. Narrative Views: Psychiatric illnesses can be viewed from different perspectives.
– Treatment Strategies: Often combine biomedical, psychosocial, and cognitive approaches.
– Diagnosis and Treatment: Based on diagnostic criteria and the biopsychosocial model.
– Pillars of Psychotherapy: Form the basis of treatment approaches.
– Biocognitive Approach: Includes mentalist etiology in treatment strategies.

Practitioners and Career Trends in Psychiatry:
– Psychiatrists: Trained physicians specializing in psychiatry.
– Practice Settings: Include solo, group, government, academic, nonprofit, or for-profit entities.
– Career Trends: Shortage of psychiatrists addressed through early placements and telemedicine.
– Training: Distinguishes psychiatrists from other mental health professionals.
– Subspecialties: Include addiction psychiatry, biological psychiatry, and child and adolescent psychiatry.

Research and Clinical Applications in Psychiatry:
– Interdisciplinary Research: Combines social, biological, and psychological perspectives.
– Clinical Application: Diagnostic procedures vary in different settings and involve various evaluations.
– Diagnostic Manuals: Include ICD-11, DSM, and Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders.
– Treatment Modalities: Include psychiatric medications, electroconvulsive therapy, and inpatient treatment.
– General Considerations: Referral paths, evaluation sources, and adverse effects of psychiatric medications.

Psychiatry (Wikipedia)

Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of deleterious mental conditions. These include various matters related to mood, behaviour, cognition, perceptions, and emotions.

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Initial psychiatric assessment of a person begins with creating a case history and conducting a mental status examination. Physical examinations, psychological tests, and laboratory tests may be conducted. On occasion, neuroimaging or other neurophysiological studies are performed. Mental disorders are diagnosed in accordance with diagnostic manuals such as the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), edited by the World Health Organization (WHO), and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA). The fifth edition of the DSM (DSM-5), published in May 2013, reorganized the categories of disorders and added newer information and insights consistent with current research.

Treatment may include psychotropics (psychiatric medicines) and psychotherapy, and also other modalities such as assertive community treatment, community reinforcement, substance-abuse treatment, and supported employment. Treatment may be delivered on an inpatient or outpatient basis, depending on the severity of functional impairment or risk to the individual or community. Research within psychiatry is conducted on an interdisciplinary basis with other professionals, such as epidemiologists, nurses, social workers, occupational therapists, and clinical psychologists.

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