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PGO waves

Discovery and Detection of PGO Waves: – Discovered in 1959 by French scientists in animal test subjects. – Named PGO waves in later research by […]

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Discovery and Detection of PGO Waves:
– Discovered in 1959 by French scientists in animal test subjects.
– Named PGO waves in later research by Brooks and Bizzi.
– Detected in animals through brain electrode placement.
– Indirect detection in humans enabled by advances in deep brain stimulation.
– Inference of PGO wave existence in humans based on animal models.

Mechanism of PGO Waves Generation and Propagation:
– Originates in neurons in the pons.
– Neuronal network extends to lateral geniculate nucleus and occipital lobe.
– Executive neurons include triggering and transfer neurons.
– Modulatory neurons regulate wave amplitude and frequency.
– Involvement of aminergic, cholinergic, nitroxergic, and GABA-ergic neurons in wave control.

Influence of Auditory Stimulation on PGO Waves:
– Auditory stimulation increases PGO waves during waking and sleeping cycles.
– Positive-feedback mechanism from auditory-evoked PGO waves.
– Amplitude of PGO waves increases with auditory stimulation.
– Involvement of neurons associated with auditory information transfer.
– Auditory stimulation does not reduce PGO wave amplitude with repetition.

Role of Basal Ganglia in PGO Waves and REM Sleep:
– Basal ganglia associated with arousal, motor control, and learning.
– Reciprocal connection with PGO-transferring nuclei in the pons.
– Subthalamic nucleus implicated in ascending activating network during REM sleep.
– Subthalamus shows PGO-like waves in humans during pre-REM and REM sleep.
– Potential active role of subthalamus in PGO wave transmission during REM sleep.

PGO Waves in Relation to REM Sleep, Dreaming, and Memory:
– PGO waves coincide with eye movement in REM sleep.
– P-wave density during REM sleep linked to learning performance.
– PGO waves signal dreaming during REM sleep.
– Importance in memory consolidation and brain recounting of daily experiences during sleep.
– Studies exploring PGO waves during different conscious states and their significance in cognitive neuroscience.

PGO waves (Wikipedia)

Ponto-geniculo-occipital waves or PGO waves are distinctive wave forms of propagating activity between three key brain regions: the pons, lateral geniculate nucleus, and occipital lobe; specifically, they are phasic field potentials. These waves can be recorded from any of these three structures during and immediately before REM sleep. The waves begin as electrical pulses from the pons, then move to the lateral geniculate nucleus residing in the thalamus, and end in the primary visual cortex of the occipital lobe. The appearances of these waves are most prominent in the period right before REM sleep, albeit they have been recorded during wakefulness as well. They are theorized to be intricately involved with eye movement of both wake and sleep cycles in many different animals.

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