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Periodic breathing

Types: – Cheyne-Stokes respiration – Biots respiration References: – Berry RB, Budhiraja R, Gottlieb DJ, Gozal D, Iber C, Kapur VK, et al. (October 2012). […]

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Types:
– Cheyne-Stokes respiration
– Biots respiration

References:
– Berry RB, Budhiraja R, Gottlieb DJ, Gozal D, Iber C, Kapur VK, et al. (October 2012). Rules for scoring respiratory events in sleep: update of the 2007 AASM Manual for the Scoring of Sleep and Associated Events.
– Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 8 (5): 597–619. doi:10.5664/jcsm.2172. PMC3459210. PMID23066376.
– Kelly DH, Stellwagen LM, Kaitz E, Shannon DC (1985). Apnea and periodic breathing in normal full-term infants during the first twelve months.
– Pediatric Pulmonology, 1 (4): 215–9. doi:10.1002/ppul.1950010409. PMID4069810. S2CID20652322.
– Rudrappa, Mohan; Modi, Pranav; Bollu, Pradeep C. (2024), Cheyne Stokes Respirations, StatPearls, Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing, PMID28846350, retrieved 2024-03-02

Causes:
– Originally thought to arise from serious neurologic or cardiovascular disease
– Can occur in healthy individuals
– More common during sleep
– Often associated with central sleep apnea
– Typical in adult patients with congestive heart failure

Occurrence in Infants:
– Normal variation in premature and full-term infants
– Pauses in breathing for up to 10 seconds
– Followed by rapid, shallow breaths
– Usually resolves within the first six months of life
– Studies show 78% of healthy full-term infants experience periodic breathing in the first two weeks of life

Treatment:
– Treatment may vary based on underlying cause
– Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy can be effective
– Medications like acetazolamide or theophylline may be prescribed
– Oxygen therapy can help improve oxygen levels
– Lifestyle changes such as weight loss or avoiding alcohol before bedtime can be beneficial

Prognosis:
– Prognosis depends on the underlying condition
– Periodic breathing in healthy individuals usually has a good outlook
– In cases related to congestive heart failure, prognosis is linked to heart health
– Early detection and appropriate management can improve outcomes
– Long-term monitoring may be necessary for some individuals

Periodic breathing (Wikipedia)

Periodic breathing is clusters of breaths separated by intervals of apnea or near-apnea. As opposed to normal breathing which is usually regular, periodic breathing is defined as three or more episodes of central apnea lasting at least 4 seconds, separated by no more than 30 seconds of normal breathing.

Periodic breathing was originally thought to arise from serious neurologic or cardiovascular disease and therefore to carry a poor outlook. It is now known that periodic breathing also tends to occur during sleep, it can occur in healthy persons, and the apnea in periodic breathing is usually central sleep apnea rather than obstructive sleep apnea.

Periodic breathing during sleep occurs typically in adult patients with congestive heart failure.

Periodic breathing is also a normal variation of breathing found in premature and full term infants. It occurs when the infant has pauses in breathing for no more than 10 seconds at a time followed by a series of rapid, shallow breaths. Then the breathing returns to normal without any stimulation or intervention. These pauses in breathing may be accompanied by minor oxygen desaturation and bradycardia. It usually occurs when the infant is sleeping deeply, but may occur with light sleep or even when awake. Studies have shown that 78% of healthy full-term infants experience episodes of periodic breathing in the first two weeks of life, which typically resolves in the first six months of life.

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