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Classification of Parasomnias: – The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD) classifies parasomnias into 10 core categories. – Parasomnias involve a combination of wakefulness, non-rapid […]

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Classification of Parasomnias:
– The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD) classifies parasomnias into 10 core categories.
– Parasomnias involve a combination of wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.
– The State Dissociation paradigm enhances the understanding of sleep disorders and rectifies flaws in previous definitions.
– NREM-related parasomnias occur during stage 3 or 4 of NREM sleep and can be triggered by factors like alcohol, sleep deprivation, and emotional stress.
– Common NREM parasomnias include sleep-walking, night terrors, and confusional arousal.

Specific Parasomnia Disorders:
– Confusional arousal involves partial awakening and confusion, more prevalent in children and can lead to injuries and drowsy driving accidents.
– Sleepwalking (somnambulism) has a prevalence of 1–17% in childhood and about 4% in adults, associated with various triggers and can occur during different sleep stages.
– Rapid eye movement (REM)-related parasomnias like rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) are common in older adults and can lead to self-injury.
– Recurrent Isolated Sleep Paralysis involves the inability to perform voluntary movements at sleep onset or waking, with a lifetime prevalence of 7%.
– Nightmare Disorder involves recurrent nightmares associated with awakening dysphoria and primarily affects REM sleep.

Other Specific Parasomnia Disorders:
– Catathrenia, previously classified as a REM sleep parasomnia, is now considered a sleep-related breathing disorder characterized by breath holding and groaning during sleep.
– Sleep-Related Painful Erections occur only during sleep, primarily during REM sleep, and can be attributed to pelvic floor hypertonia, affecting men, especially middle-aged onwards.
– Other parasomnias include exploding head syndrome, sleep-related hallucinations, sleep enuresis, and parasomnias due to medical disorders or substances.

Diagnosis and Management of Parasomnias:
– Parasomnias are commonly diagnosed using questionnaires that analyze clinical history and rule out various factors, with sleep diaries and partner logs providing additional information.
– Treatment of parasomnias can involve psychoeducation on sleep hygiene, pharmacological interventions, and seeking a specialist in sleep disorders in potentially harmful cases.
– Children with parasomnias often recover without medical intervention, while adults may face persistent symptoms with varying prognoses depending on the specific parasomnia.

Research and Studies on Parasomnias:
– Various studies and publications explore different aspects of parasomnias, including prevalence rates of sleep paralysis, the relationship between sleep paralysis and hallucinations, and the diagnosis and management strategies for parasomnias.
– Research on specific topics like sleep-related painful erections, REM sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson’s disease, and the effectiveness of diagnostic tools like actigraphy in identifying parasomnias provide valuable insights into understanding and treating these sleep disorders.

Parasomnia (Wikipedia)

Parasomnias are a category of sleep disorders that involve abnormal movements, behaviors, emotions, perceptions, and dreams that occur while falling asleep, sleeping, between sleep stages, or during arousal from sleep. Parasomnias are dissociated sleep states which are partial arousals during the transitions between wakefulness, NREM sleep, and REM sleep, and their combinations.

SpecialtySleep medicine, psychology Edit this on Wikidata
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