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Nutritional neuroscience

Minerals: – Deficiency or excess of essential minerals can disrupt brain development and neurophysiology to affect behavior. – Minerals are implicated in the pathophysiology of […]

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Minerals:
– Deficiency or excess of essential minerals can disrupt brain development and neurophysiology to affect behavior.
– Minerals are implicated in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s dementia.
– Iron is essential for critical metabolic enzymes and its deficiency can disrupt brain development.
– Zinc is essential for the structure and function of proteins critical for every cell.
– Zinc deficiency can disrupt development and neurophysiology, leading to memory impairments and behavior changes.
– Chronic marginal iron affects dopamine metabolism and myelin fatty acid composition.
– Marginal iron deficiency disrupted axon growth in the auditory nerve in rats.
– Prenatal iron deficiency in rhesus macaques disrupts emotional behavior.
– Iron supplementation is recommended by the World Health Organization.
– Careful monitoring is necessary in malaria-endemic areas due to iron supplementation.
– Zinc is essential for thousands of critical proteins and can serve as a neurotransmitter in the brain.
– Zinc deficiency impairs neurogenesis during early development.
– Zinc deficiency later in life can disrupt appetite and cause depression-like behavior.
– Excess zinc can disrupt copper absorption.
– Around 25% of the world’s population is at risk of zinc deficiency.
– Copper deficiency can cause a neurodegenerative syndrome recognized in ruminant animals.
– Acquired copper deficiency is rare due to copper’s ubiquity and low daily requirement.
– Copper deficiency can manifest with vitamin B12 and other deficiencies.
– Copper deficiency can lead to myelopathy, peripheral neuropathy, and optic neuropathy.
– Menkes disease is a genetic disorder of copper deficiency with fatal symptoms.

Nutritional Deficiencies:
– Anorexia causes malnutrition and inadequate zinc intake, worsening the deficiency.
– Zinc supplementation has shown to increase body mass in anorexia nervosa treatment.
– Zinc deficiency can impair cognitive and motor function, especially in children.
– Human observational studies suggest links between low zinc status and cognitive impairments.
– Vitamin A deficiency affects learning and memory in rats.
– Spatial memory is notably affected by Vitamin A deficiency.
– Deficiency symptoms include night blindness and weight loss.
– Thiamin deficiency can lead to beriberi.
– Chronic alcoholism can cause thiamine deficiency-related disorders.
– Niacin functions in biological oxidation and reduction reactions.
– Severe deficiency leads to pellagra.
– Folate deficiency disrupts neurulation and neurogenesis.
– Folic acid intake linked to autism incidence.
– Folate deficiency can lead to megaloblastic anemia.
– Folate deficiency linked to altered mental function.
– Choline supplementation improves memory.
– Choline reduces effects of folate deficiency on neurogenesis.

Manganese:
– High doses of manganese lead to malformed offspring.
– Manganism resembles Schizophrenia.
– Found in large amounts in paint and steelmaking.
– Treatment involves levodopa and chelation with EDTA.
– Chelation therapy may not effectively alleviate symptoms.
– The Red River Delta near Hanoi has high manganese levels.
– About 65% of wells in the region contain high levels of various elements.
– Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences published this information.

Vitamins:
– Deficiencies or excess intake of vitamins can impact brain health.
– Essential for cell function, immune system, brain, and vision.
– Thiamin (Vitamin B1) is a coenzyme vital for carbohydrate metabolism.
– Niacin (Vitamin B3) is involved in the synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol.
– Folate (Vitamin B9) plays a role in DNA synthesis and amino acid conversion.
– Women should take 400μg folic acid to prevent defects.
– Good sources of folate include liver, cereals, beans, and spinach.

Treatment and Prevention:
– Treatment of Thiamine Deficiency involves intravenous thiamine and long-term oral supplements.
– Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome is associated with neuropathy and chronic alcoholism.
– Pellagra treatment includes nicotinic acid or nicotinamide.
– Prevention of Niacin Deficiency includes eating foods rich in niacin.
– Folate supplementation reduces nervous system anomalies and is linked to Alzheimer’s prevention.
– Choline is important for brain development in offspring and reduces the effects of folate deficiency on neurogenesis.

Nutritional neuroscience (Wikipedia)

Nutritional neuroscience is the scientific discipline that studies the effects various components of the diet such as minerals, vitamins, protein, carbohydrates, fats, dietary supplements, synthetic hormones, and food additives have on neurochemistry, neurobiology, behavior, and cognition.

Poor diet in early childhood affects the number of neurons in parts of the brain.

Recent research on nutritional mechanisms and their effect on the brain show they are involved in almost every facet of neurological functioning including alterations in neurogenesis, neurotrophic factors, neural pathways and neuroplasticity, throughout the life cycle.

Relatively speaking, the brain consumes an immense amount of energy in comparison to the rest of the body. The human brain is approximately 2% of the human body mass and uses 20–25% of the total energy expenditure. Therefore, mechanisms involved in the transfer of energy from foods to neurons are likely to be fundamental to the control of brain function. Insufficient intake of selected vitamins, or certain metabolic disorders, affect cognitive processes by disrupting the nutrient-dependent processes within the body that are associated with the management of energy in neurons, which can subsequently affect neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity, and cell survival.

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