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Types of Nutrients: – Nutrients are substances essential for survival, growth, and reproduction in organisms. – Essential nutrients for animals include energy sources, amino acids, […]

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Types of Nutrients:
– Nutrients are substances essential for survival, growth, and reproduction in organisms.
– Essential nutrients for animals include energy sources, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals.
– Plants require minerals, carbon dioxide, and oxygen for survival.
– Fungi obtain nutrients from living or dead organic matter.
– Nutrients can be organic (containing carbon) or inorganic.

– Humans consume carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur in large quantities.
– Macronutrients include carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and water.
– Calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, and chloride are also considered macronutrients.
– Carbohydrates are sugars classified based on their units.
– Proteins are made of amino acids, some of which are essential.

– Micronutrients are essential elements needed in varying quantities.
– Dietary minerals like copper and iron are essential for metabolic functions.
– Vitamins are organic compounds required in small amounts.
– Diseases can develop in the absence of specific vitamins.
– Micronutrients are crucial for overall health and well-being.

Essentiality of Nutrients:
– Essential nutrients are required for normal physiological function.
– Water is universally essential for maintaining homeostasis.
– Humans need nine amino acids, two fatty acids, thirteen vitamins, fifteen minerals, and choline.
– Some molecules are conditionally essential in certain states.
– Essential amino acids cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained from the diet.

Nutrient Sources and Plant Nutrients:
– Nutrients come from inorganic and organic matter.
– Inorganic sources include carbon dioxide, water, nitrates, phosphates, sulfates, and diatomic molecules.
– Organic sources include carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.
– Plants absorb minerals through roots and obtain nutrients from the environment.
– Macronutrients for plants include nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, sulfur, magnesium, carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen.
– Micronutrients for plants include iron, boron, chlorine, manganese, zinc, copper, molybdenum, and nickel.

Nutrient (Wikipedia)

A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce. The requirement for dietary nutrient intake applies to animals, plants, fungi, and protists. Nutrients can be incorporated into cells for metabolic purposes or excreted by cells to create non-cellular structures, such as hair, scales, feathers, or exoskeletons. Some nutrients can be metabolically converted to smaller molecules in the process of releasing energy, such as for carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and fermentation products (ethanol or vinegar), leading to end-products of water and carbon dioxide. All organisms require water. Essential nutrients for animals are the energy sources, some of the amino acids that are combined to create proteins, a subset of fatty acids, vitamins and certain minerals. Plants require more diverse minerals absorbed through roots, plus carbon dioxide and oxygen absorbed through leaves. Fungi live on dead or living organic matter and meet nutrient needs from their host.

Different types of organisms have different essential nutrients. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is essential to humans and some animal species, but most other animals and many plants are able to synthesize it. Nutrients may be organic or inorganic: organic compounds include most compounds containing carbon, while all other chemicals are inorganic. Inorganic nutrients include nutrients such as iron, selenium, and zinc, while organic nutrients include, protein, fats, sugars, and vitamins.

A classification used primarily to describe nutrient needs of animals divides nutrients into macronutrients and micronutrients. Consumed in relatively large amounts (grams or ounces), macronutrients (carbohydrates, fats, proteins, water) are primarily used to generate energy or to incorporate into tissues for growth and repair. Micronutrients are needed in smaller amounts (milligrams or micrograms); they have subtle biochemical and physiological roles in cellular processes, like vascular functions or nerve conduction. Inadequate amounts of essential nutrients, or diseases that interfere with absorption, result in a deficiency state that compromises growth, survival and reproduction. Consumer advisories for dietary nutrient intakes, such as the United States Dietary Reference Intake, are based on the amount required to prevent deficiency, and provide macronutrient and micronutrient guides for both lower and upper limits of intake. In many countries, regulations require that food product labels display information about the amount of any macronutrients and micronutrients present in the food in significant quantities. Nutrients in larger quantities than the body needs may have harmful effects. Edible plants also contain thousands of compounds generally called phytochemicals which have unknown effects on disease or health, including a diverse class with non-nutrient status called polyphenols, which remain poorly understood as of 2017.

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