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Nomad

Nomadic Lifestyle and Characteristics: – Nomads are communities who move to obtain food, find pasture, or make a living. – They follow fixed seasonal patterns […]

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Nomadic Lifestyle and Characteristics:
– Nomads are communities who move to obtain food, find pasture, or make a living.
– They follow fixed seasonal patterns of movements and settlements.
– Nomads traditionally travel by animal, canoe, or on foot.
– They move for reasons like hunting, gathering, raising livestock, raiding settled communities, or serving customers.
– Travel in groups based on kinship and marriage ties, with decisions made by a council of adult males.

Historical and Cultural Aspects of Nomadism:
– Nomadic pastoralism developed in stages: pastoralism, agropastoralism, and true nomadism.
– Nomadic pastoralism began around 8,500 to 6,500 BCE in the southern Levant.
– Different cultures like the Mongolians and the Sámi have practiced nomadic pastoralism.
– Post-Soviet Central Asia saw a resurgence of pastoral nomadism due to economic changes.
– Yamnaya steppe pastoralists played a significant role in Indo-European migrations.

Decline and Adaptation of Nomadic Lifestyle:
– The population of nomadic pastoral tribes decreased in the 20th century, with an estimated 30-40 million nomads worldwide in 1995.
– Many countries converted pastures into cropland, forcing nomadic peoples into permanent settlements.
– Nomadism is a lifestyle adapted to infertile regions like steppe, tundra, or desert.
– Pastoral nomads often reside in arid climates and travel in search of pastures.
– Nomads may have fixed winter and summer locations for shelter and grazing.

Contemporary Nomadic Populations:
– Kyrgyz people have seen a resurgence in nomadism since the 1990s.
– Nomadism was central to Kyrgyz economy before Russian colonization.
– Nomadism symbols like the yurt are significant in Kyrgyzstan.
– Nomadic populations have shifted due to economic changes in Central Asia.
– Iran’s nomadic population decreased in the 20th century but remains significant.

Perception and Representation of Nomadic Lifestyle:
– Pastoral nomads were viewed as invading and destructive.
– Western authors sought romance and mystery in nomadic societies.
– Nomads were stereotypically viewed as immoral and disease-ridden.
– Nomadic pastoralists were rarely seen as a civilizing force.
– The lifestyle of nomadic groups like the Fulani in West Africa has faced challenges.

Nomad (Wikipedia)

Nomads are communities without fixed habitation who regularly move to and from areas. Such groups include hunter-gatherers, pastoral nomads (owning livestock), tinkers and trader nomads. In the twentieth century, the population of nomadic pastoral tribes slowly decreased, reaching an estimated 30–40 million nomads in the world as of 1995.

A painting by Vincent van Gogh depicting a caravan of nomadic Roma

Nomadic hunting and gathering—following seasonally available wild plants and game—is by far the oldest human subsistence method. Pastoralists raise herds of domesticated livestock, driving or accompanying them in patterns that normally avoid depleting pastures beyond their ability to recover. Nomadism is also a lifestyle adapted to infertile regions such as steppe, tundra, or ice and sand, where mobility is the most efficient strategy for exploiting scarce resources. For example, many groups living in the tundra are reindeer herders and are semi-nomadic, following forage for their animals.

Sometimes also described as "nomadic" are various itinerant populations who move among densely populated areas to offer specialized services (crafts or trades) to their residents—external consultants, for example. These groups are known as "peripatetic nomads".

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