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Neurotechnology

– Neurotechnology Overview: – Neurotechnology has been evolving for nearly half a century, with significant advancements in the last two decades. – Brain imaging has […]

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– Neurotechnology Overview:
– Neurotechnology has been evolving for nearly half a century, with significant advancements in the last two decades.
– Brain imaging has revolutionized the field, enabling direct monitoring of brain activities.
– It is utilized in pharmaceutical practices for conditions like depression, sleep disorders, ADHD, and cancer scanning.
– The goal of neurotechnology is to control brain functions, influencing lifestyles and personalities.
– Advances in neurotechnology promise enhancements and rehabilitation methods for patients with neurological problems.

– Types of Neurotechnologies:
– Deep brain stimulation improves the quality of life in patients with movement disorders.
– Transcranial ultrasound stimulation uses ultrasound to modulate neural activity in the brain.
– Transcranial magnetic stimulation manipulates electrical activity in specific brain loci.
– Transcranial direct current stimulation enhances cognitive performance and relieves conditions like depression and chronic fatigue.
– Electrophysiology methods like EEG and MEG measure brainwave activity non-invasively.

– Ethical Considerations in Neurotechnology:
– Ethical questions arise regarding identity, agency, cognitive liberty, and privacy with the use of neurotechnologies.
– Concerns about privacy implications, cognitive liberty, and agency are crucial in the ethical discussions surrounding neurotechnologies.
– Ethicists are wary of undesired alterations through techniques like TMS and the impact on personal identity and agency.
– Legal liabilities, neurorights, and AI are key ethical priorities in the development and use of neurotechnologies.
– Balancing benefits and risks, ensuring informed consent, and equitable access are essential ethical considerations.

– Neurotechnology Applications:
– Applications include deep brain stimulation for psychiatric disorders, brain-computer interfaces for home use, muscle stimulation for movement restoration, and lie-detection using neurotechnologies.
– Neurotechnologies have potential applications in various medical fields, improving patient outcomes and quality of life.

– Research and Clinical Studies:
– Studies focus on relational agency and identity in DBS for psychiatry, long-term independent use of brain-computer interfaces, movement restoration in tetraplegia, and lie-detection using emerging neurotechnologies.
– Clinical implications include improved quality of life for psychiatric patients, movement restoration in tetraplegia, and advancements in detecting deception.
– Ongoing research aims to enhance neurotechnologies for more precise interventions, expand applications, address ethical challenges, and collaborate for advancements.

– Future Directions in Neurotechnology:
– Future directions include enhancing neurotechnologies for precise interventions, expanding applications, addressing ethical challenges, and promoting responsible use.
– Collaboration between researchers, clinicians, and ethicists is essential for unlocking the full potential of neurotechnologies and ensuring their ethical and effective implementation.

Neurotechnology (Wikipedia)

Neurotechnology encompasses any method or electronic device which interfaces with the nervous system to monitor or modulate neural activity.

Common design goals for neurotechnologies include using neural activity readings to control external devices such as neuroprosthetics, altering neural activity via neuromodulation to repair or normalize function affected by neurological disorders, or augmenting cognitive abilities. In addition to their therapeutic or commercial uses, neurotechnologies also constitute powerful research tools to advance fundamental neuroscience knowledge.

Some examples of neurotechnologies include deep brain stimulation, photostimulation based on optogenetics and photopharmacology, transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial electric stimulation and brain–computer interfaces, such as cochlear implants and retinal implants.

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