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1. Historical Development of Neuroscience: – Earliest study of nervous system in ancient Egypt – Views on brain function in ancient Egypt and Greece – […]

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1. Historical Development of Neuroscience:
– Earliest study of nervous system in ancient Egypt
– Views on brain function in ancient Egypt and Greece
– Contributions of Hippocrates, Plato, Aristotle, and Galen
– Contributions of Abulcasis, Averroes, Avicenna, and Maimonides in Medieval Muslim world
– Contributions of Vesalius, Descartes, Willis, and Swammerdam in Renaissance Europe

2. Neuroscientific Discoveries:
– Golgi stain for visualizing individual neurons
– Discovery of electrical nature of nerve signal by Emil du Bois-Reymond
– Discovery of electrical phenomena in cerebral hemispheres by Richard Caton
– Development of staining procedure by Camillo Golgi
– Formation of neuron doctrine by Santiago Ramón y Cajal

3. Localization of Brain Functions:
– Flourens’ lesions to observe effects on motricity, sensibility, and behavior
– Brain-damaged patient studies by Marc Dax and Paul Broca
– Observations of epileptic patients by John Hughlings Jackson
– Carl Wernicke’s theory on specialization of brain structures in language
– Modern research using neuroimaging techniques and Brodmann cerebral cytoarchitectonic map

4. Advancements in Neuroscience Understanding:
– Hodgkin and Huxley’s mathematical model for electrical signal transmission in neurons
– Simplification of Hodgkin-Huxley model by FitzHugh and Nagumo
– Bernard Katz’s model of neurotransmission at synapses
– Eric Kandel’s contributions to molecular understanding of neurons
– Wilder Penfield’s maps of brain functions through epilepsy treatment

5. Modern Neuroscience and Advancements:
– Study of nervous system increased due to advances in molecular biology, electrophysiology, and computational neuroscience
– Allows study of nervous system structure, function, development, malfunctions, and changes
– Neurons communicate through synapses via electrical or electrochemical signals
– Vertebrate nervous system comprises central (brain, spinal cord) and peripheral parts
– Human brain contains around 100 billion neurons and 100 trillion synapses
– Brain complexity resides in thousands of distinguishable substructures connected in synaptic networks
– High plasticity of human brain leads to structural and functional changes in synapses throughout life
– Progress in neuroscience driven by advancements in technology like electron microscopy, genetics, and neuroimaging

Neuroscience (Wikipedia)

Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system (the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nervous system), its functions and disorders. It is a multidisciplinary science that combines physiology, anatomy, molecular biology, developmental biology, cytology, psychology, physics, computer science, chemistry, medicine, statistics, and mathematical modeling to understand the fundamental and emergent properties of neurons, glia and neural circuits. The understanding of the biological basis of learning, memory, behavior, perception, and consciousness has been described by Eric Kandel as the "epic challenge" of the biological sciences.

Drawing by Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1899) of neurons in the pigeon cerebellum

The scope of neuroscience has broadened over time to include different approaches used to study the nervous system at different scales. The techniques used by neuroscientists have expanded enormously, from molecular and cellular studies of individual neurons to imaging of sensory, motor and cognitive tasks in the brain.

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