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Neuropsychology

Historical Development of Neuropsychology: – Neuropsychology emerged as a discipline within psychology in the 1980s. – Ancient Egyptian writings described brain trauma and remedies, though […]

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Historical Development of Neuropsychology:
– Neuropsychology emerged as a discipline within psychology in the 1980s.
– Ancient Egyptian writings described brain trauma and remedies, though they emphasized the heart over the brain.
– Aristotle believed the heart controlled mental processes, influencing views on brain function for centuries.
– Hippocrates considered the brain the seat of the soul and inspired scientific exploration of brain functions.
– René Descartes introduced dualism and explored the mind-body problem, impacting understanding of brain control over behaviors.
– Key figures like Willis, Gall, Bouillaud, Broca, and Wernicke contributed to the foundation of neuropsychology.

Approaches in Neuropsychology:
– Experimental neuropsychology uses experimental psychology methods to study the nervous system’s relationship with cognitive function.
– Clinical neuropsychology applies knowledge to assess and manage individuals with neurocognitive problems.

Methods and Tools in Neuropsychology:
– Standardized neuropsychological tests link performance to specific neurocognitive processes.
– Brain scans like fMRI and PET assess brain structure and function for better diagnosis and understanding of brain injury.

Key Figures and Contributions in Neuropsychology:
– Notable figures include Donald O. Hebb, Brenda Milner, Oliver Sacks, Roger Wolcott Sperry, and Edith Kaplan.
– Significant contributions were made by pioneers like Thomas Willis, Paul Broca, and Carl Wernicke.

Techniques and Publications in Neuropsychology:
– Techniques like diffusion tensor imaging and inhibitory control studies are used in brain imaging.
– Notable publications include works by Gluck, Mercado, and Myers on learning and memory, Benton and Sivan on clinical neuropsychology, and Sherman on malingering criteria for neuropsychological assessment.

Neuropsychology (Wikipedia)

Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology concerned with how a person's cognition and behavior are related to the brain and the rest of the nervous system. Professionals in this branch of psychology focus on how injuries or illnesses of the brain affect cognitive and behavioral functions.

It is both an experimental and clinical field of patient-focused psychology, thus aiming to understand how behavior and cognition are influenced by brain function and concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of behavioral and cognitive effects of neurological disorders. Whereas classical neurology focuses on the pathology of the nervous system and classical psychology is largely divorced from it, neuropsychology seeks to discover how the brain correlates with the mind through the study of neurological patients. It thus shares concepts and concerns with neuropsychiatry and with behavioral neurology in general. The term neuropsychology has been applied to lesion studies in humans and animals. It has also been applied in efforts to record electrical activity from individual cells (or groups of cells) in higher primates (including some studies of human patients).

In practice, neuropsychologists tend to work in research settings (universities, laboratories, or research institutions), clinical settings (medical hospitals or rehabilitation settings, often involved in assessing or treating patients with neuropsychological problems), or forensic settings or industry (often as clinical-trial consultants where CNS function is a concern).[citation needed]

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