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Historical Development: – Philosophers like Plato and John Locke delved into human thought and its connection to political philosophy. – Locke’s theory of humans forming […]

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Historical Development:
– Philosophers like Plato and John Locke delved into human thought and its connection to political philosophy.
– Locke’s theory of humans forming governments out of necessity in the state of nature.
– Roger Sperry’s 1979 neuropolitics experiment with split-brain patients.
– Frans de Waal’s ‘Chimpanzee Politics’ in 1982 exploring non-human primate political dynamics.
– Robin Dunbar’s research linking brain size to social group management in animals.

Neuroimaging and Political Cognition:
– Use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study political cognition.
– Differences in brain activity between politically knowledgeable and novice individuals.
– Drew Westen’s study showing brain activity distinctions between Republicans and Democrats.
– David Amodio’s research linking liberalism to specific brain activity.
– Ryota Kanai’s 2011 study revealing brain region size differences related to political orientation.

Political Behavior in Other Species:
– Study of political behaviors in social species like hyenas, dolphins, and elephants.
– Spotted hyenas’ fission-fusion society with complex political dynamics.
– Dolphins forming multilevel political alliances requiring advanced social cognition.
– Elephants displaying diverse coalitional dynamics based on societal organization levels.
– Importance of understanding political dynamics in other species for insights into human politics.

Interdisciplinary Connections:
– Intersection of biology and political science.
– Exploration of the relationship between biology and political orientation.
– Involvement of political psychology in understanding the psychological aspects of political behavior.
– Contributions of researchers like Carl Zimmer, Roger Sperry, and Frans de Waal to neuropolitics.
– Advancements in understanding political cognition through studies by Drew Westen, David Amodio, and Ryota Kanai.

Biological Influences on Politics:
– Impact of evolutionary psychology on political behavior.
– Influence of brain structure, hormones, and genetic factors on political beliefs and orientations.
– Differences in biological traits between liberals and conservatives.
– Explanation of political preferences through evolutionary psychology.
– Relationship between genetic variations, brain activity, and social complexities with political ideologies.

Neuropolitics (Wikipedia)

Neuropolitics is a science which investigates the interplay between the brain and politics. It combines work from a variety of scientific fields which includes neuroscience, political science, psychology, behavioral genetics, primatology, and ethology. Often, neuropolitics research borrow methods from cognitive neuroscience to investigate classic questions from political science such as how people make political decisions, form political / ideological attitudes, evaluate political candidates, and interact in political coalitions. However, another line of research considers the role that evolving political competition has had on the development of the brain in humans and other species. The research in neuropolitics often intersects with work in genopolitics, political psychology, political physiology, sociobiology, neuroeconomics, and neurolaw.

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