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Neurophysiology

Historical Development of Neurophysiology: – Neurophysiology studies date back to 4,000 B.C. – Key figures like Hippocrates, Galen, and Leonardo da Vinci made significant contributions […]

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Historical Development of Neurophysiology:
– Neurophysiology studies date back to 4,000 B.C.
– Key figures like Hippocrates, Galen, and Leonardo da Vinci made significant contributions in ancient times.
– Important milestones include the study of the ventricle system, epilepsy, and human thought.
– Noteworthy cases like Phineas Gage’s have shaped the field.

Etymology and Key Terminology:
– The term neurophysiology originates from Greek words meaning nerve and knowledge of nature.
– Physiology was first used in 1542.
– Important discoveries by figures like Andreas Vesalius and René Descartes in the 16th and 17th centuries.
– Key anatomical structures like the optic chiasm, hippocampus, and myelin sheath were discovered over the centuries.

Contributions to Medicine and Therapy:
– Historical developments include the establishment of mental health hospitals and the use of electroconvulsive therapy.
– Studies in phrenology and formulation of laws like the Bell–Magendie law have impacted medical practice.
– Case studies like Phineas Gage’s have been crucial in understanding neurophysiology.

Tools, Techniques, and Methodologies:
– Neurophysiologists utilize tools such as calcium imaging, fMRI, and electrophysiology.
– Various scientific disciplines like chemistry, physics, and molecular biology are employed in studying brain activity.
– Recording techniques like patch clamp and EEG, along with site-directed mutations, play a vital role in research.

References and Additional Resources:
– Various references and additional resources related to the history and development of neurophysiology.
– Important figures like Julien Jean César Legallois and Félix Vicq d’Azyr are highlighted.
– Further reading materials on anatomy, neurosurgery, and specific historical figures in neurophysiology are provided.

Neurophysiology (Wikipedia)

Neurophysiology is a branch of physiology and neuroscience that studies nervous system function rather than nervous system architecture. This area aids in the diagnosis and monitoring of neurological diseases. Historically, it has been dominated by electrophysiology—the electrical recording of neural activity ranging from the molar (the electroencephalogram, EEG) to the cellular (intracellular recording of the properties of single neurons), such as patch clamp, voltage clamp, extracellular single-unit recording and recording of local field potentials. However, since the neuron is an electrochemical machine, it is difficult to isolate electrical events from the metabolic and molecular processes that cause them. Thus, neurophysiologists currently utilise tools from chemistry (calcium imaging), physics (functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI), and molecular biology (site directed mutations) to examine brain activity.

The word originates from the Greek word νεῦρον meaning "nerve" and physiology meaning knowledge about the function of living systems (φύσις meaning "nature" and -λογία meaning "knowledge").

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