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Neurophysics

– Recording Techniques: – Electroencephalography (EEG) measures brain electrical activity non-invasively using scalp electrodes. – Electrocorticography (ECoG) records electrical activity directly on the cerebral cortex […]

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– Recording Techniques:
– Electroencephalography (EEG) measures brain electrical activity non-invasively using scalp electrodes.
– Electrocorticography (ECoG) records electrical activity directly on the cerebral cortex after a craniotomy.
– Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) shows brain blood flow changes.
– Two Photons Microscopy (2P) uses fluorescent proteins and lasers to image brain cells.
– These techniques aid in studying brain activities triggered by controlled stimulation.

– Theories of Consciousness:
– Consciousness mechanisms remain unknown.
– Some theories propose disturbances in the cerebral electromagnetic field as an explanation.
– Quantum mechanics is suggested by some hypotheses to explain consciousness.
– Quantum mind theories were first introduced by Eugene Wigner.
– These theories explore consciousness beyond classical dynamics.

– Neurophysics Institutes:
– Theoretical Neurophysics Laboratory, University of Bremen.
– Department of Neurophysics, Max-Planck Institute.
– Neurophysics group, Aarhus University.
– W. M. Keck Center for Neurophysics, UCLA.
– Neurophysics Program, Georgia State University.

– Awards:
– The Brain Prize recognizes significant contributions to neurology; recent laureates include Adrian Bird and Huda Zoghbi.
– Other notable awards for neurophysicists include the NAS Award in the Neurosciences and the Kavli Prize.
– Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine have been awarded for contributions like the patch clamp technique and advancements in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).
– Recognition has been given to scientists improving the understanding of the nervous system.
– Awards highlight groundbreaking work in mapping and understanding brain functions.

– See Also:
– Action potential: Neuron communication through electric impulses.
– Brain: Organ controlling the nervous system in vertebrates and most invertebrates.
– Biophysics: Study of biological systems using physical science methods.
– Electrical engineering: Engineering branch focusing on electricity.
– Electrophysiology: Study of electrical properties of biological cells and tissues.

Neurophysics (Wikipedia)

Neurophysics (or neurobiophysics) is the branch of biophysics dealing with the development and use of physical methods to gain information about the nervous system. Neurophysics is an interdisciplinary science using physics and combining it with other neurosciences to better understand neural processes. The methods used include the techniques of experimental biophysics and other physical measurements such as EEG mostly to study electrical, mechanical or fluidic properties, as well as theoretical and computational approaches. The term "neurophysics" is a portmanteau of "neuron" and "physics".

Among other examples, the theorisation of ectopic action potentials in neurons using a Kramers-Moyal expansion and the description of physical phenomena measured during an EEG using a dipole approximation use neurophysics to better understand neural activity.

Another quite distinct theoretical approach considers neurons as having Ising model energies of interaction and explores the physical consequences of this for various Cayley tree topologies and large neural networks. In 1981, the exact solution for the closed Cayley tree (with loops) was derived by Peter Barth for an arbitrary branching ratio and found to exhibit an unusual phase transition behavior in its local-apex and long-range site-site correlations, suggesting that the emergence of structurally-determined and connectivity-influenced cooperative phenomena may play a significant role in large neural networks.

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