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Neuromodulation

Neuromodulatory Systems: – Major neurotransmitter systems: noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin, cholinergic system – Noradrenaline system: around 15,000 neurons in the locus coeruleus, plays roles in brain […]

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Neuromodulatory Systems:
– Major neurotransmitter systems: noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin, cholinergic system
– Noradrenaline system: around 15,000 neurons in the locus coeruleus, plays roles in brain functions
– Dopamine system: pathways from ventral tegmentum or substantia nigra, related to Parkinson’s disease
– Serotonin system: around 10% of total body serotonin in the brain, acts on serotonin receptors
– Cholinergic system: components, functions, and involvement in various brain processes

Pharmacological Aspects of Neuromodulation:
– Dopamine pharmacology: drugs like cocaine, AMPT, reserpine, and deprenyl affect dopamine levels
– Serotonin pharmacology: SSRIs like fluoxetine and tricyclic antidepressants block reuptake of serotonin
– MAOIs: inhibit enzyme that metabolizes neurotransmitters, take weeks to alleviate depression symptoms
– Opioid peptides and opiate drugs: their distribution and interaction with receptors

Therapeutic Applications of Neuromodulation:
– Neuromodulation in medical therapies for restoration of function and pain relief
– Electrical stimulation devices like DBS, SCS, VNS, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation
– Infusion of medications into cerebrospinal fluid using intrathecal drug delivery
– Specific uses in conditions like Parkinson’s disease, chronic pain, epilepsy, major depressive disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder

Mechanisms of Neuromodulation:
– Altering neurotransmitter release, modulating neural activity, regulating neural circuits
– Influencing synaptic plasticity and changing brain connectivity
– Types of neuromodulation techniques like deep brain stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, spinal cord stimulation
– Devices used for neuromodulation: implantable pulse generators, electrodes, programming systems, external stimulators, and lead extensions

Future Trends in Neuromodulation:
– Personalized medicine approaches, miniaturization of devices, closed-loop systems
– Non-invasive techniques and integration of optogenetics for advanced neuromodulation
– Advancements in neuromodulation technology and research for enhanced therapeutic outcomes

Neuromodulation (Wikipedia)

Neuromodulation is the physiological process by which a given neuron uses one or more chemicals to regulate diverse populations of neurons. Neuromodulators typically bind to metabotropic, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) to initiate a second messenger signaling cascade that induces a broad, long-lasting signal. This modulation can last for hundreds of milliseconds to several minutes. Some of the effects of neuromodulators include: altering intrinsic firing activity, increasing or decreasing voltage-dependent currents, altering synaptic efficacy, increasing bursting activity and reconfigurating synaptic connectivity.

Major neuromodulators in the central nervous system include: dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, histamine, norepinephrine, nitric oxide, and several neuropeptides. Cannabinoids can also be powerful CNS neuromodulators. Neuromodulators can be packaged into vesicles and released by neurons, secreted as hormones and delivered through the circulatory system. A neuromodulator can be conceptualized as a neurotransmitter that is not reabsorbed by the pre-synaptic neuron or broken down into a metabolite. Some neuromodulators end up spending a significant amount of time in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), influencing (or "modulating") the activity of several other neurons in the brain.

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