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Neurology

History and Training of Neurologists: – Neurology began in the 15th and 16th centuries with contributions from neurologists like Thomas Willis and Jean-Martin Charcot. – […]

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History and Training of Neurologists:
– Neurology began in the 15th and 16th centuries with contributions from neurologists like Thomas Willis and Jean-Martin Charcot.
– Edward Flatau published a brain atlas in 1894, influencing neurology.
– The term ‘neurologia’ appeared in texts from 1610, focusing on nerves and vessels.
– Many neurologists specialize in areas like stroke, epilepsy, and movement disorders.
– Neurologists in the US and Canada undergo 8-10 years of training, including residency and optional fellowship.
– Neurologists require an MD or equivalent degree.
– In the US, neurologists complete 4 years of residency after medical school.
– Subspecialties in neurology include neurodevelopmental disabilities and neurorehabilitation.
– In the UK and Ireland, neurology is a subspecialty of general medicine, requiring specific training steps.

Physical Examination and Diagnostic Procedures in Neurology:
– Neurologists review patients’ health history and perform a neurological exam.
– The exam assesses mental status, cranial nerves, strength, coordination, reflexes, sensation, and gait.
– Localization of pathology is crucial for developing a differential diagnosis.
– Imaging studies like CT scans and MRIs aid in diagnosis.
– Additional tests such as nerve conduction studies may be necessary.
– Neurologists may order imaging studies and neurophysiologic tests.
– Common tests in neurology include EEG and ultrasound of blood vessels.

Clinical Tasks and Neurological Practice:
– Neurologists examine patients referred by other physicians.
– They take a detailed medical history and perform a neurological examination.
– Components of the exam include assessing cognitive function and motor strength.
– Neurologists treat various conditions like stroke, epilepsy, and brain infections.
– They may also be involved in clinical research and trials.
– Neurology is a nonsurgical specialty, with neurosurgery as the corresponding surgical field.
– Neurologists may specialize in areas like sleep medicine, pain management, or vascular neurology.

Specializations and General Caseload of Neurologists:
– Responsible for diagnosis, treatment, and management of various neurological conditions.
– May refer patients to neurosurgeons or interventional neuroradiologists for surgical intervention.
– Perform lumbar punctures and care for people with hereditary diseases.
– Develop interest in subfields like stroke, dementia, or movement disorders.
– Some may specialize in neurointensive care, headaches, epilepsy, or sleep disorders.

Overlap and Relationships in Neurology:
– Acute head trauma mostly treated by neurosurgeons.
– Stroke cases managed by vascular neurologists and interventional neuroradiologists.
– Neurologists play an increasing role in stroke care at certified stroke centers.
– Nervous system infectious diseases treated by infectious disease specialists.
– Headaches and sciatica cases initially managed by general practitioners.
– In some countries, neurologists may specialize in clinical neurophysiology or electrodiagnostic medicine.
– Neurological disorders often have psychiatric manifestations, leading to overlap with psychiatry.

Neurology (Wikipedia)

Neurology (from Greek: νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is the branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of conditions and disease involving the nervous system, which comprises the brain, the spinal cord and the peripheral nerves. Neurological practice relies heavily on the field of neuroscience, the scientific study of the nervous system.

Neurology
A network of dendrites from neurons in a hippocampus
SystemNervous system
Significant diseasesNeuropathy, dementia, stroke, encephalopathy, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, meningitis, muscular dystrophy, migraine, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, narcolepsy
Significant testsComputed axial tomography, MRI scan, lumbar puncture, electroencephalography
SpecialistNeurologist
GlossaryGlossary of medicine

A neurologist is a physician specializing in neurology and trained to investigate, diagnose and treat neurological disorders. Neurologists diagnose and treat myriad neurologic conditions, including stroke, epilepsy, movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, brain infections, autoimmune neurologic disorders such as multiple sclerosis, sleep disorders, brain injury, headache disorders like migraine, tumors of the brain and dementias such as Alzheimer's disease. Neurologists may also have roles in clinical research, clinical trials, and basic or translational research. Neurology is a nonsurgical specialty, its corresponding surgical specialty is neurosurgery.

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