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Neurolinguistics

1. History and Development of Neurolinguistics: – Emerged from aphasiology in the 19th century. – Paul Broca and Carl Wernicke linked brain damage to language […]

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1. History and Development of Neurolinguistics:
– Emerged from aphasiology in the 19th century.
– Paul Broca and Carl Wernicke linked brain damage to language deficits.
– Korbinian Brodmann’s brain mapping led to Brodmann areas.
– Term “neurolinguistics” coined in the 1940s.
– Trager, Hecaen, and Luria contributed to the field’s establishment.

2. Methods and Technologies in Neurolinguistics:
– PET, fMRI, EEG, MEG, DTI, fNIRS, and electrocorticography are commonly used.
– Hemodynamic methods rely on blood flow changes in the brain.
– Electrophysiological techniques measure brain’s electric activity.
– Various experimental designs like subtraction paradigm and priming are employed.
– Direct cortical stimulation and TMS are used in some cases.

3. Language Processing and Brain Localization:
– Studies focus on specific brain locations for language modules.
– Research explores interactions between different brain regions during language processing.
– Brain imaging technologies advance localization studies.
– Investigations analyze brain activation for different languages.
– Broca’s and Wernicke’s studies pioneered localization research.

4. Language Acquisition and Brain Structures:
– Research explores brain structures in language acquisition.
– First language acquisition stages are similar across linguistic environments.
– Brain activation differs in multilingual language processing.
– Neurolinguistics contributes to understanding language acquisition patterns.
– Relationship between brain structures and language learning is a key focus.

5. Brain Activity and Language Processing Studies:
– Various studies track word recognition, semantic context effects, and syntactic processing.
– Researchers investigate memory use in language comprehension through electrophysiology.
– Functional neuroimaging studies explore distributed neuronal networks for encoding semantic information.
– Syntax processing studies reveal automatic processing of grammar and brain activity during speaking.
– Investigations highlight the influence of meaning on speech sound perception.

Neurolinguistics (Wikipedia)

Neurolinguistics is the study of neural mechanisms in the human brain that control the comprehension, production, and acquisition of language. As an interdisciplinary field, neurolinguistics draws methods and theories from fields such as neuroscience, linguistics, cognitive science, communication disorders and neuropsychology. Researchers are drawn to the field from a variety of backgrounds, bringing along a variety of experimental techniques as well as widely varying theoretical perspectives. Much work in neurolinguistics is informed by models in psycholinguistics and theoretical linguistics, and is focused on investigating how the brain can implement the processes that theoretical and psycholinguistics propose are necessary in producing and comprehending language. Neurolinguists study the physiological mechanisms by which the brain processes information related to language, and evaluate linguistic and psycholinguistic theories, using aphasiology, brain imaging, electrophysiology, and computer modeling.

Surface of the human brain, with Brodmann areas numbered
An image of neural pathways in the brain taken using diffusion tensor imaging
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