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Neuroimmunology

Neuroimmunology Overview: – Pro-inflammatory cytokines impact neural targets controlling thermogenesis, behavior, sleep, and mood. – Cytokines are produced in the central nervous system during brain […]

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Neuroimmunology Overview:
– Pro-inflammatory cytokines impact neural targets controlling thermogenesis, behavior, sleep, and mood.
– Cytokines are produced in the central nervous system during brain injury, infections, and neurodegenerative processes.
– Extensive bi-directional communication occurs between the nervous and immune systems.
– Neuroinflammation and neuroimmune activation play a role in various neurological disorders.
– Reduction of lymphocyte populations can impair cognition in mice.
– The CNS and immune system interaction is well-known.
– Burn-induced organ dysfunction can be attenuated using vagus nerve stimulation.
– Proinflammatory cytokine production is a central element in burn-induced stress response.
– Vagus nerve signaling impacts various inflammatory pathologies.
– Toll-like receptor (TLR4) is critically involved in neuroinflammation and T cell recruitment.

Epigenetics in Neurology:
– Epigenetic medicine studies brain development, behavior, and neurological diseases.
– Epigenetic reprogramming aims to restore cognitive and behavioral functions.
– Regulation of stem cell maintenance and fate determinations is complex.
– Neural fate decisions involve neurotransmitter signal pathways and epigenetic regulators.
– Neurodevelopmental disorders result from impairments in brain growth and development.
– Therapies include DNA methylation inhibitors, HDAC inhibitors, and RNA-based approaches.
– DNA methylation inhibitors activate previously silenced genes.
– HDACs can affect DNA demethylation and synergy with other therapeutic agents.
– RNA-based approaches enhance stability, specificity, and efficacy.

Neural Stem Cell Fate and Neurodevelopment:
– Stem cell fate determinations are orchestrated by complex circuitry.
– Neural fate decisions involve neurotransmitter signal pathways and epigenetic regulators.
– Timely orchestration of neuronal stem cell differentiation is crucial.
– Glial fate decisions determine subtype specification and maturation processes.
– Myelination is a critical part of the maturation process.
– Neurodevelopmental disorders impair brain and nervous system growth.
– Disorders include Asperger syndrome, traumatic brain injury, and genetic disorders.
– Autism spectrum disorders may result from epigenetic regulation disorders.
– Deregulation of epigenetic processes in ASDs alters gene expression and brain function.

Neurodegenerative Disorders and Epigenetic Mechanisms:
– Neurodegenerative diseases involve erroneous epigenetic mechanisms.
– Diseases like Huntington’s and Alzheimer’s have complex pathogenic mechanisms.
– Treatment with histone deacetylases and anthracyclines shows positive effects.
– Overexpression of HDAC6 suppresses neurodegenerative phenotypes in Alzheimer’s.
– Transcriptional and post-transcriptional dysregulation is seen in neurodegenerative diseases.

Future Research Directions and Technologies:
– High throughput technologies combined with imaging modalities may enhance knowledge of genomic architecture.
– Imbalanced genomic imprinting in brain development: an evolutionary basis for the etiology of autism.
– Gene misexpression is a key area of recent discoveries.
– Histone deacetylase inhibitors can be used as a dual therapeutic modality in multiple sclerosis.
– Chemical genetics reveals a complex functional ground state of neural stem cells.

Neuroimmunology (Wikipedia)

Neuroimmunology is a field combining neuroscience, the study of the nervous system, and immunology, the study of the immune system. Neuroimmunologists seek to better understand the interactions of these two complex systems during development, homeostasis, and response to injuries. A long-term goal of this rapidly developing research area is to further develop our understanding of the pathology of certain neurological diseases, some of which have no clear etiology. In doing so, neuroimmunology contributes to development of new pharmacological treatments for several neurological conditions. Many types of interactions involve both the nervous and immune systems including the physiological functioning of the two systems in health and disease, malfunction of either and or both systems that leads to disorders, and the physical, chemical, and environmental stressors that affect the two systems on a daily basis.

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