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Neuroimmune system

Neuroimmune System Components: – Glial cells, including astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes, are key cellular components. – Mast cells are naturally found in the brain and […]

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Neuroimmune System Components:
– Glial cells, including astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes, are key cellular components.
– Mast cells are naturally found in the brain and are involved in microbiota-gut-brain axis interactions.
– G protein-coupled receptors like CXCR4 and CB1 play a role in neuroimmune signaling.
– Enteric neurons and glial cells interact with gut microbes and immune cells, transmitting signals to the CNS.
– Interleukins and immune cell signals can access the hypothalamus through neural pathways.

Neuroimmune Cellular Physiology:
– Cytokines regulate immune responses and can activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.
– Cytokines bind to neural receptors, resulting in pain sensation.
– Auto-immune T-cells are implicated in neurogenesis and memory formation.
– Noxious stimuli activate sensory neurons and immune cells through processes like inflammasome activation.
– Inflammation involves neural processes like cytokine secretion coupled with neuropeptide and neurotransmitter release.

Neuroimmune Responses and Interactions:
– Glial cells, including microglia and astroglia, combat pathogens and injury.
– Chemokines mediate communication between neurons and glial cells.
– Glial cells relay information about pathogens to the CNS, impacting depressive symptoms.
– Chronic glial cell activation leads to neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation.
– Microglia phagocytize debris from dead neurons and aid in synaptic pruning.

Reflex Responses and Clinical Significance:
– Withdrawal reflex is a protective mechanism activated by harmful stimuli.
– Chemicals like CGRP and Substance P increase tissue redness and swelling.
– Reflexes respond to pathogens, allergens, and toxins through the vagus nerve.
– Prolonged stress increases susceptibility to infections.
– Neuroimmune system involvement in Alzheimer’s disease and multiple sclerosis progression.

Neuroimmune System in Diseases:
– Asthma, chronic cough, and secondary brain injury are linked to neuroimmune responses.
– Microglia, astrocytes, and mast cells play crucial roles in disease progression.
– Neuroimmune system may aid in recovery outcomes post-CNS injury.
– Reflex responses aim to eject parasites from the body through scratching, vomiting, and coughing.
– Implications for therapeutic interventions and novel pain therapies.

Neuroimmune system (Wikipedia)

The neuroimmune system is a system of structures and processes involving the biochemical and electrophysiological interactions between the nervous system and immune system which protect neurons from pathogens. It serves to protect neurons against disease by maintaining selectively permeable barriers (e.g., the blood–brain barrier and blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier), mediating neuroinflammation and wound healing in damaged neurons, and mobilizing host defenses against pathogens.

Neuroimmune system
This diagram depicts the neuroimmune mechanisms that mediate methamphetamine-induced neurodegeneration in the human brain. The NF-κB-mediated neuroimmune response to methamphetamine use which results in the increased permeability of the blood–brain barrier arises through its binding at and activation of sigma-1 receptors, the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs), the dysregulation of glutamate transporters (specifically, EAAT1 and EAAT2) and glucose metabolism, and excessive calcium influx in glial cells and dopamine neurons.
Anatomical terminology

The neuroimmune system and peripheral immune system are structurally distinct. Unlike the peripheral system, the neuroimmune system is composed primarily of glial cells; among all the hematopoietic cells of the immune system, only mast cells are normally present in the neuroimmune system. However, during a neuroimmune response, certain peripheral immune cells are able to cross various blood or fluid–brain barriers in order to respond to pathogens that have entered the brain. For example, there is evidence that following injury macrophages and T cells of the immune system migrate into the spinal cord. Production of immune cells of the complement system have also been documented as being created directly in the central nervous system.

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