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Group 1: Neurogenesis Process – Neurogenesis is the process of producing neurons from neural stem cells. – Types of neural stem cells include neuroepithelial cells, […]

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Group 1: Neurogenesis Process

– Neurogenesis is the process of producing neurons from neural stem cells.
– Types of neural stem cells include neuroepithelial cells, radial glial cells, basal progenitors, and others.
– Neurogenesis is most active during embryonic development.
– Neurons do not divide once born, except in rare cases.
– The rate and type of neurogenesis are influenced by molecular and genetic factors.
– Radial glial cells are primary stem cells residing in the ventricular zone.
– Neurogenesis involves final cell division of parent radial glial cells.
– Neurons born must migrate to final destinations to form neural circuitry.
– Neurogenesis is regulated by molecular and genetic factors.

Group 2: Adult Neurogenesis

– In mammals like rodents, neurons arise from different types of neural stem cells.
– Adult neurogenesis occurs at low levels in humans in specific brain regions.
– In many mammals, the olfactory bulb and hippocampus show significant adult neurogenesis.
– Environmental factors such as exercise and stress can influence neurogenesis in the hippocampus.
– Postnatal neurogenesis in the human hippocampus decreases sharply after birth.
– New neurons are produced in the dentate gyrus of the adult mammalian hippocampus.
– Adult mouse hippocampus cells display properties similar to mature neurons.

Group 3: Epigenetic Regulation

– Neural stem cells switch from proliferative to differentiative divisions during brain development.
– Epigenetic modifications play a crucial role in regulating gene expression.
– DNA cytosine methylation and demethylation are key processes in cell fate determination.
– DNA methylation is catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases.
– Epigenetic modifications are essential for cellular differentiation in the brain.

Group 4: Impact Factors on Neurogenesis

– Microglia regulate neurogenesis, migration, and neuronal network formation.
– Microglia establish direct contacts with developing neurons.
– Microglia regulate integration of developing neurons.
– DMT in ayahuasca promotes neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus.
– Low dose of psilocybin in mice increased hippocampal neurogenesis after 2 weeks.
– High dose of psilocybin in mice decreased hippocampal neurogenesis.

Group 5: Research and Significance

– Neurogenesis plays a vital role in brain plasticity and cognitive function.
– Understanding neurogenesis can lead to insights into neurological diseases.
– Adult neurogenesis contributes to learning and memory processes.
– Research on neurogenesis provides potential therapeutic avenues for brain disorders.
– Investigating the therapeutic potential of compounds affecting neurogenesis.
– Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying adult neurogenesis.

Neurogenesis (Wikipedia)

Neurogenesis is the process by which nervous system cells, the neurons, are produced by neural stem cells (NSCs). In short, it is brain growth in relation to its organization.[citation needed] This occurs in all species of animals except the porifera (sponges) and placozoans. Types of NSCs include neuroepithelial cells (NECs), radial glial cells (RGCs), basal progenitors (BPs), intermediate neuronal precursors (INPs), subventricular zone astrocytes, and subgranular zone radial astrocytes, among others.

A neurosphere of neural stem cells in rat embryo spreads out into a single layer of cells. A) Neurosphere of subventricular zone cells after two days in culture. B) Shows the neurosphere at four days in culture and cells migrating away. C) Cells at the periphery of the neurosphere mostly having extending processes.
Anatomical terminology

Neurogenesis is most active during embryonic development and is responsible for producing all the various types of neurons of the organism, but it continues throughout adult life in a variety of organisms. Once born, neurons do not divide (see mitosis), and many will live the lifespan of the animal, except under extraordinary and usually pathogenic circumstances.

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