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Overview of Neuroethics: – Neuroethics involves the intersection of neuroscience with social and ethical issues. – The field is young and constantly evolving with advancements […]

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Overview of Neuroethics:
– Neuroethics involves the intersection of neuroscience with social and ethical issues.
– The field is young and constantly evolving with advancements in neuroscience.
– Ethical issues arise from technological advances like neuroimaging and brain implants.
– Ethical problems also stem from understanding the neural basis of behavior and consciousness.
– The scope of neuroethical issues includes what can be done and what is known in neuroscience.

Historical Background and Implications:
– Primitive societies lacked neuroethics guidance for mental illness and violence.
– Neuroscience ethics lagged behind scientific and technological advancements.
– Medical ethics struggle to keep pace with technology in addressing mental health and violence.
– Lessons from history emphasize the importance of separating neuroscience ethics from state mandates.
– Authoritarian regimes have corrupted medical ethics leading to barbaric practices in the past.

Development and Key Issues in Neuroethics:
– Interest in neuroethics surged in the early 21st century.
– Various meetings and publications emerged to discuss the ethics of neuroscience.
– Organizations like the Society for Neuroscience recognized the importance of neuroethics.
– Neuroethics addresses the ethical, legal, and social impact of neuroscience.
– It explores how neurotechnology can predict or alter human behavior.

Contributions and Establishments in Neuroethics:
– Neuroethics has gained significant attention and recognition since the early 2000s.
– The International Neuroethics Society was founded in 2006.
– Various organizations and publications have been dedicated to advancing neuroethics.
– Over the years, numerous neuroethics centers and programs have been established globally.
– Scholarly literature on neuroethics is rapidly growing with journals soliciting submissions.

Recent Developments and Leadership:
– Since 2017, neuroethics working groups from various organizations have published reports and principles.
– The Global Neuroethics Summit Delegates in 2017 outlined ethical questions for brain science research.
– Leadership figures in neuroethics include Steven Hyman, Barbara Sahakian, and Judy Illes.
– OECD confirmed neuroethics principles and is developing an implementation toolkit.
– IEEE developed a neuroethical framework in early 2020 to guide engineers working on new neurotechnologies.

Neuroethics (Wikipedia)

In philosophy and neuroscience, neuroethics is the study of both the ethics of neuroscience and the neuroscience of ethics. The ethics of neuroscience concerns the ethical, legal and social impact of neuroscience, including the ways in which neurotechnology can be used to predict or alter human behavior and "the implications of our mechanistic understanding of brain function for society... integrating neuroscientific knowledge with ethical and social thought".

Some neuroethics problems are not fundamentally different from those encountered in bioethics. Others are unique to neuroethics because the brain, as the organ of the mind, has implications for broader philosophical problems, such as the nature of free will, moral responsibility, self-deception, and personal identity. Examples of neuroethics topics are given later in this article .

The origin of the term "neuroethics" has occupied some writers. Rees and Rose (as cited in "References" on page 9)[inconsistent] claim neuroethics is a neologism that emerged only at the beginning of the 21st century, largely through the oral and written communications of ethicists and philosophers. According to Racine (2010), the term was coined by the Harvard physician Anneliese A. Pontius in 1973 in a paper entitled "Neuro-ethics of 'walking' in the newborn" for the Perceptual and Motor Skills. The author reproposed the term in 1993 in her paper for Psychological Report, often wrongly mentioned as the first title containing the word "neuroethics". Before 1993, the American neurologist Ronald Cranford has used the term (see Cranford 1989). Illes (2003) records uses, from the scientific literature, from 1989 and 1991. Writer William Safire is widely credited with giving the word its current meaning in 2002, defining it as "the examination of what is right and wrong, good and bad about the treatment of, perfection of, or unwelcome invasion of and worrisome manipulation of the human brain".

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