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Neuroendocrinology

Neuroendocrine System Overview: – The nervous and endocrine systems interact to regulate physiological processes. – The hypothalamus controls hormone secretion in the pituitary glands. – […]

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Neuroendocrine System Overview:
– The nervous and endocrine systems interact to regulate physiological processes.
– The hypothalamus controls hormone secretion in the pituitary glands.
– Hormones produced by various glands throughout the body regulate physiological processes.
– The neuroendocrine system maintains homeostasis and regulates reproduction, metabolism, eating behavior, and blood pressure.

Key Components of the Neuroendocrine System:
– The hypothalamus produces oxytocin and vasopressin for the posterior pituitary.
– The pituitary gland is divided into anterior, intermediate, and posterior lobes.
– Major neuroendocrine axes control hormone secretion and involve interactions between the hypothalamus and various glands.
– Functions include controlling reproduction, response to stress, metabolism, mood, and fluid balance.

Modern Scope and Functions:
– Neuroendocrinology covers a wide range of topics related to neuroendocrine neurons.
– Neuroendocrine neurons influence the brain through steroids, impacting functions like digestion and brain processes.
– Experimental techniques, including electrophysiology and mathematical models, aid in studying hormone release mechanisms and systemic responses.

Experimental Techniques in Neuroendocrinology:
– Early experiments by Geoffrey Harris studied hypothalamus-pituitary gland communication.
– Electrophysiology and mathematical models like Hodgkin-Huxley and Integrate-and-Fire have been crucial in understanding physiological events and hormone release.
– These techniques help predict adaptations in different circumstances and have been instrumental in studying various hormones.

Related Fields and Research:
– Behavioral endocrinology, molecular neuroscience, neurochemistry, and neuropharmacology are related areas.
– Understanding the gut-brain axis and neuroscience is crucial in neuroendocrinology research.
– Various studies in neuroendocrinology have been published in reputable journals, contributing to the understanding of neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating food intake, body weight, mood regulation, and body fluid metabolism.

Neuroendocrinology (Wikipedia)

Neuroendocrinology is the branch of biology (specifically of physiology) which studies the interaction between the nervous system and the endocrine system; i.e. how the brain regulates the hormonal activity in the body. The nervous and endocrine systems often act together in a process called neuroendocrine integration, to regulate the physiological processes of the human body. Neuroendocrinology arose from the recognition that the brain, especially the hypothalamus, controls secretion of pituitary gland hormones, and has subsequently expanded to investigate numerous interconnections of the endocrine and nervous systems.

The endocrine system consists of numerous glands throughout the body that produce and secrete hormones of diverse chemical structure, including peptides, steroids, and neuroamines. Collectively, hormones regulate many physiological processes. The neuroendocrine system is the mechanism by which the hypothalamus maintains homeostasis, regulating reproduction, metabolism, eating and drinking behaviour, energy utilization, osmolarity and blood pressure.

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