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– Description: – Focuses on diseases of the nervous system affecting vision, eye movements, or pupillary reflexes. – Often deals with complex multi-system diseases and […]

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– Description:
– Focuses on diseases of the nervous system affecting vision, eye movements, or pupillary reflexes.
– Often deals with complex multi-system diseases and exotic diagnoses.
– Active teachers in academic institutions.
– Winners of prestigious teaching awards.
– Can perform eye muscle surgery for adult strabismus and other procedures.

– Historical Developments:
– No English textbook on neuro-ophthalmology at the start of the 20th century.
– Dr. William Campbell Posey and Dr. William G. Spiller edited the first relevant book.
– Frank B. Walsh, a pioneer in the field, popularized and developed neuro-ophthalmology.
– Walsh organized neuro-ophthalmology conferences and compiled the first textbook.
– The textbook has been updated by subsequent generations.

– Future:
– Improved functional neuroimaging enables better understanding and management of neurologic conditions.
– Neuro-ophthalmologists are increasingly focusing on treatment in addition to diagnosis.
– Gene therapy trials for Leber hereditary optic neuropathy show promise.
– Progress in retinal ganglion cell regeneration and synaptic connections is notable.
– Visual system research aids in understanding neural plasticity and regenerative medicine.

– References:
– Lessell discusses the future of neuro-ophthalmology.
– North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society plays a significant role in the field.
– Concerns about the future of neuro-ophthalmology are raised by McDonnell.
– Spitze et al. discuss neuro-ophthalmology as a career choice.
– Various studies and articles provide insights into different aspects of neuro-ophthalmology.

– Additional Information:
– Neuro-ophthalmologists complete residencies in neurology or ophthalmology.
– Diagnostic studies might be normal in patients with significant neuro-ophthalmic disease.
– Common pathologies include optic neuritis, brain tumors, anisocoria, and more.
– The North American Neuro-Ophthalmological Society is a key international organization.
– Neuro-ophthalmologists often act as liaisons between ophthalmology and other medical departments.

Neuro-ophthalmology (Wikipedia)

Neuro-ophthalmology is an academically-oriented subspecialty that merges the fields of neurology and ophthalmology, often dealing with complex systemic diseases that have manifestations in the visual system. Neuro-ophthalmologists initially complete a residency in either neurology or ophthalmology, then do a fellowship in the complementary field. Since diagnostic studies can be normal in patients with significant neuro-ophthalmic disease, a detailed medical history and physical exam is essential, and neuro-ophthalmologists often spend a significant amount of time with their patients.

Common pathology referred to a neuro-ophthalmologist includes afferent visual system disorders (e.g. optic neuritis, optic neuropathy, papilledema, brain tumors or strokes) and efferent visual system disorders (e.g. anisocoria, diplopia, ophthalmoplegia, ptosis, nystagmus, blepharospasm, seizures of the eye or eye muscles, and hemifacial spasm). The largest international society of neuro-ophthalmologists is the North American Neuro-Ophthalmological Society (NANOS), which organizes an annual meeting and publishes the Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology. Neuro-ophthalmologists are often faculty at large university-based medical centers. Patients often have co-existing diseases in other fields (rheumatology, endocrinology, oncology, cardiology, etc.), thus the neuro-ophthalmologist is often a liaison between the ophthalmology department and other departments in the medical center.

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