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Neuro-oncology

1. Epidemiology and Presentation of Brain Tumors: – Primary brain tumors can occur at any age, often afflicting individuals during their prime years. – Factors […]

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1. Epidemiology and Presentation of Brain Tumors:
– Primary brain tumors can occur at any age, often afflicting individuals during their prime years.
– Factors like age, tumor location, and clinical presentation aid in differential diagnosis.
– Most primary brain tumors are more common in men, while meningiomas are more common in women.

2. Metastatic Tumors and Mechanisms of Neuro-Oncology:
– Cancer spreads to the nervous system through invasion, compression, or metastasis.
– Intracranial metastasis types include brain, dural, and leptomeningeal metastasis.
– Histology, genetic factors, and glutamate neurotransmission play roles in tumor development and related symptoms.

3. Initial Evaluation and Care for Neuro-Oncology Patients:
– Seizures, stroke-like symptoms, pain, and changes in bowel/bladder habits are common presentations.
– A detailed history and examination are crucial in the initial evaluation.
– Practical strategies for providing appropriate patient care and management challenges are highlighted.

4. Diagnostic Procedures and Treatments in Neuro-Oncology:
– Imaging studies like CT and MRI, less common studies, and the importance of LP and CSF analysis are discussed.
– Accurate histologic diagnosis is critical for treatment planning.
– Treatments include radiotherapy, chemotherapy, corticosteroids, and neurosurgical interventions based on tumor nature and modern techniques.

5. Resources and References in Neuro-Oncology:
– Relevant references and external links to resources like the British Neuro-Oncology Society and Cochrane for further information.
– Studies and guides on patient care, seizures in gliomas, neurobiology, and surgical techniques are referenced.

Neuro-oncology (Wikipedia)

Neuro-oncology is the study of brain and spinal cord neoplasms, many of which are (at least eventually) very dangerous and life-threatening (astrocytoma, glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, ependymoma, pontine glioma, and brain stem tumors are among the many examples of these). Among the malignant brain cancers, gliomas of the brainstem and pons, glioblastoma multiforme, and high-grade (highly anaplastic) astrocytoma/oligodendroglioma are among the worst. In these cases, untreated survival usually amounts to only a few months, and survival with current radiation and chemotherapy treatments may extend that time from around a year to a year and a half, possibly two or more, depending on the patient's condition, immune function, treatments used, and the specific type of malignant brain neoplasm. Surgery may in some cases be curative, but, as a general rule, malignant brain cancers tend to regenerate and emerge from remission easily, especially highly malignant cases. In such cases, the goal is to excise as much of the mass (tumor cells) and as much of the tumor margin as possible without endangering vital functions or other important cognitive abilities. The Journal of Neuro-Oncology is the longest continuously published journal in the field and serves as a leading reference to those practicing in the area of neuro-oncology.

Neuro-oncology
FocusCancerous brain tumors
Significant testsTumor markers, TNM staging, CT scans, MRI
SpecialistNeurooncologist
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