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Mu wave

Mu Wave and Mirror Neurons: – EEG detects mu rhythms over the left motor cortex. – Mu wave patterns repeat at 7.5–12.5 Hz. – Mu […]

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Mu Wave and Mirror Neurons:
– EEG detects mu rhythms over the left motor cortex.
– Mu wave patterns repeat at 7.5–12.5 Hz.
– Mu rhythm is suppressed during motor actions or visualization.
– Researchers suggest mirror neuron system involvement in mu rhythm suppression.
– Mirror neuron system discovered in macaque monkeys in the 1990s.
– Mirror neurons fire when performing tasks and when observing others.
– Mirror neuron activity can be studied through mu wave suppression.
– Evidence of mirror neurons in humans and various brain regions involved.
– Mirror neurons not only fire during motor tasks but also involve intention.

Development and Autism:
– Mu wave suppression reflects activity in the frontal and parietal networks.
– Mu wave detectable in infants as early as 4-6 months.
– Peak frequency of mu wave increases with age, stabilizing in adulthood.
– Mu waves indicate infants’ developing ability to imitate and understand causal information.
– Understanding mechanisms shared between action perception and execution has implications for language development.
– Individuals with autism show mirror neuron system activation only when performing tasks.
– Some scientists link autism to mirror neuron system dysfunction.
– Deficiency in mirror neuron system may explain communication difficulties in autism.
– fMRI activation in the inferior frontal gyrus differs in individuals with autism.
– Mirror neuron system and mu waves studied for cognitive and social deficits in autism.

Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) and Mu Waves:
– Mu rhythms used in developing brain-computer interface technology.
– BCI systems aim to aid severely physically disabled individuals in communication and control.
– Mu wave suppression is utilized in BCI systems for navigation and manipulation.
– Clinicians hope BCI technology will provide new ways for disabled populations to interact with their environments.
– BCI development holds promise for enhancing quality of life for physically disabled individuals.

History and Brain Waves:
– Mu waves have been studied since the 1930s.
– Henri Gastaut and colleagues reported desynchronization of mu waves during movements.
– Mu waves can be desynchronized by imagining actions or observing movements.
– Studies have shown mu suppression when observing moving body parts.
– Mu waves have been confirmed by various research groups.
– Delta wave (0.5 – 4Hz), Theta wave (4 – 7Hz), Alpha wave (8 – 12Hz), Mu wave (8 – 13Hz), SMR wave (12.5 – 15.5Hz).

Research and Studies:
– Various studies have been conducted on mu rhythms and brain-computer interfaces.
– EEG evidence has shown mirror neuron dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders.
– Neural mechanisms of imitation and mirror neuron functioning have been explored.
– The role of brain rhythms in social perception has been investigated.
– The development of mu rhythm in infants and preschool children has been studied.

Mu wave (Wikipedia)

The sensorimotor mu rhythm, also known as mu wave, comb or wicket rhythms or arciform rhythms, are synchronized patterns of electrical activity involving large numbers of neurons, probably of the pyramidal type, in the part of the brain that controls voluntary movement. These patterns as measured by electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), or electrocorticography (ECoG), repeat at a frequency of 7.5–12.5 (and primarily 9–11) Hz, and are most prominent when the body is physically at rest. Unlike the alpha wave, which occurs at a similar frequency over the resting visual cortex at the back of the scalp, the mu rhythm is found over the motor cortex, in a band approximately from ear to ear. People suppress mu rhythms when they perform motor actions or, with practice, when they visualize performing motor actions. This suppression is called desynchronization of the wave because EEG wave forms are caused by large numbers of neurons firing in synchrony. The mu rhythm is even suppressed when one observes another person performing a motor action or an abstract motion with biological characteristics. Researchers such as V. S. Ramachandran and colleagues have suggested that this is a sign that the mirror neuron system is involved in mu rhythm suppression, although others disagree.

Single lead EEG readout
One second sample of an EEG alpha oscillations . This rhythm occurs at frequencies similar to the mu rhythm, although alpha oscillations are detected over a different part of the brain.
Left motor cortex highlighted on the brain
The left motor cortex, or BA4, is highlighted in green on this left lateral view of the brain. This is the area over which mu rhythms are detected bilaterally.

The mu rhythm is of interest to a variety of scholars. Scientists who study neural development are interested in the details of the development of the mu rhythm in infancy and childhood and its role in learning. Since a group of researchers believe that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is strongly influenced by an altered mirror neuron system and that mu rhythm suppression is a downstream indication of mirror neuron activity, many of these scientists have kindled a more popular interest in investigating the mu wave in people with ASD. Assorted investigators are also in the process of using mu rhythms to develop a new technology: the brain–computer interface (BCI). With the emergence of BCI systems, clinicians hope to give the severely physically disabled population new methods of communication and a means to manipulate and navigate their environments.

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