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Molecular neuroscience

Group 1: Ion Channels – Sodium ion channels: – First isolated in 1984 from the eel Electrophorus electricus – Tetrodotoxin used for isolation – Cause […]

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Group 1: Ion Channels
– Sodium ion channels:
– First isolated in 1984 from the eel Electrophorus electricus
– Tetrodotoxin used for isolation
– Cause depolarization in neurons
– Potassium ion channels:
– Stabilize cell membrane at equilibrium potential
– Lead to repolarization in neurons
– First identified in Drosophila melanogaster mutant flies
– Calcium ion channels:
– Crucial for cell-signaling cascades and neurotransmitter release
– Different types found in excitable cells
– Isolated and cloned using chromatographic techniques

Group 2: Receptors
– Ionotropic receptors:
– Mediate neural function through ligand-gated ion channels
– Include NMDA and AMPA receptors
– Nicotinic ACh receptors:
– Bind acetylcholine to produce non-selective cation channel flow
– Activated by nicotine consumption
– Metabotropic receptors:
– Characterized by elaborate intracellular biochemistry changes
– Include glutamate, muscarinic ACh, and GABA receptors

Group 3: Neurotransmitter Release
– Involves release in discrete packets called quanta
– Types of vesicles: small synaptic vesicles and large dense-core vesicles
– Release process includes mobilization, docking, priming, fusion, and uptake
– Calcium-dependent release via voltage-gated calcium channels

Group 4: Molecular Mechanisms of Neurodegenerative Diseases
– Excitotoxicity:
– Caused by inappropriate activation of glutamate receptors
– Significant cause of neuronal damage post-brain injury
– Alzheimer’s disease:
– Most common form of dementia in the elderly
– Linked to accumulation of amyloid-β peptide
– Parkinson’s disease:
– Loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra
– Symptoms include rigidity, slow movements, and tremors

Group 5: Techniques in Molecular Neuroscience
– Locating neurotransmitters:
– Anatomical and chemical identification techniques
– Voltage-gated ion channels:
– Sodium and potassium channels
– Molecular neuroscience techniques:
– Immunocytochemistry, autoradiography
– Molecular mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases:
– Excitotoxicity, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Huntington’s disease

Molecular neuroscience (Wikipedia)

Molecular neuroscience is a branch of neuroscience that observes concepts in molecular biology applied to the nervous systems of animals. The scope of this subject covers topics such as molecular neuroanatomy, mechanisms of molecular signaling in the nervous system, the effects of genetics and epigenetics on neuronal development, and the molecular basis for neuroplasticity and neurodegenerative diseases. As with molecular biology, molecular neuroscience is a relatively new field that is considerably dynamic.

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