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Mental disorder

Definition and Classification: – Mental disorders cause dysfunction and are defined by international clinical documents like DSM-IV and DSM-5. – Two established systems for classifying […]

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Definition and Classification:
– Mental disorders cause dysfunction and are defined by international clinical documents like DSM-IV and DSM-5.
– Two established systems for classifying mental disorders are ICD-11 and DSM-5, aiding in diagnosis and treatment.
– ICD-11 categorizes mental disorders under Chapter 06, while DSM-5 has been produced by the APA since 1952.

Prevalence and Impact:
– Common mental disorders globally in 2019 include depression affecting 264 million, dementia affecting about 50 million, and bipolar disorder affecting around 45 million individuals.
– Stigma and discrimination worsen the suffering associated with mental disorders, hindering help-seeking behavior and affecting mental health outcomes.
– Education and awareness are crucial in reducing stigma and addressing discrimination in mental health.

Dimensional Models and Disorders:
– Comorbidity between disorders led to proposing dimensional models like the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology.
– Mental disorders encompass various categories like anxiety, mood, psychotic, personality, eating, and sleep disorders.
– Each disorder category presents specific symptoms and impacts on behavior and mental well-being.

Risk Factors and Genetics:
– Genetic, psychological, and environmental factors contribute to mental disorders, with different risk factors presenting at various ages.
– Genetic components are prevalent in psychiatric disorders like autism and schizophrenia, as indicated by twin studies.
– Maternal stress, birth complications, family history, and social influences play significant roles in the development of mental disorders.

Diagnosis, Treatment, and Associated Factors:
– Diagnosis of mental disorders involves assessing symptoms, signs, and impairment, sometimes utilizing psychological testing and neuroimaging.
– Drug use, chronic diseases, and environmental factors like nutrition and discrimination are linked to the prevalence and development of mental disorders.
– Individuals with chronic conditions like HIV and diabetes are at higher risk for mental health issues, emphasizing the need for comprehensive care and support.

Mental disorder (Wikipedia)

A mental disorder, also referred to as a mental illness, a mental health condition, or a psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning. A mental disorder is also characterized by a clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotional regulation, or behavior, often in a social context. Such disturbances may occur as single episodes, may be persistent, or may be relapsing–remitting. There are many different types of mental disorders, with signs and symptoms that vary widely between specific disorders. A mental disorder is one aspect of mental health.

Mental disorder
Other namesMental breakdown, mental disability, mental disease, mental health condition, mental illness, nervous breakdown, psychiatric disability, psychiatric disorder, psychological disability, psychological disorder
SpecialtyPsychiatry, clinical psychology
SymptomsAgitation, anxiety, depression, mania, paranoia, psychosis
ComplicationsCognitive impairment, social problems, suicide
TypesAnxiety disorders, eating disorders, mood disorders, personality disorders, psychotic disorders, substance use disorders
CausesGenetic and environmental factors
TreatmentPsychotherapy and medications
MedicationAntidepressants, antipsychotics, anxiolytics, mood stabilizers, stimulants
Frequency18% per year (United States)

The causes of mental disorders are often unclear. Theories incorporate findings from a range of fields. Disorders may be associated with particular regions or functions of the brain. Disorders are usually diagnosed or assessed by a mental health professional, such as a clinical psychologist, psychiatrist, psychiatric nurse, or clinical social worker, using various methods such as psychometric tests, but often relying on observation and questioning. Cultural and religious beliefs, as well as social norms, should be taken into account when making a diagnosis.

Services for mental disorders are usually based in psychiatric hospitals, outpatient clinics, or in the community, Treatments are provided by mental health professionals. Common treatment options are psychotherapy or psychiatric medication, while lifestyle changes, social interventions, peer support, and self-help are also options. In a minority of cases, there may be involuntary detention or treatment. Prevention programs have been shown to reduce depression.

In 2019, common mental disorders around the globe include: depression, which affects about 264 million people; dementia, which affects about 50 million; bipolar disorder, which affects about 45 million; and schizophrenia and other psychoses, which affect about 20 million people. Neurodevelopmental disorders include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and intellectual disability, of which onset occurs early in the developmental period. Stigma and discrimination can add to the suffering and disability associated with mental disorders, leading to various social movements attempting to increase understanding and challenge social exclusion.

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