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Effects of MDMA: – Users feel effects within 30-60 minutes, peaking at 75-120 minutes and lasting 3.5 hours. – Short-term effects include euphoria, increased self-confidence, […]

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Effects of MDMA:
– Users feel effects within 30-60 minutes, peaking at 75-120 minutes and lasting 3.5 hours.
– Short-term effects include euphoria, increased self-confidence, empathy, and altered sensations.
– Effects vary based on dose, setting, and user, with different experiences in party and therapeutic settings.
– Common physical effects include dilated pupils, enhanced sensations, and altered sense of time.

Uses of MDMA:
– Recreational use in rave culture, clubs, festivals, and house parties.
– Limited medical use historically, with FDA-approved research on MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for PTSD.
– Also used in religious and spiritual practices to enhance experiences.

Forms and Availability:
– Commonly known as ecstasy (E, X, XTC) in tablet form, or as ‘mandy’ (UK) and ‘molly’ (US) in crystalline powder form.
– Sold as hydrochloride salt in loose crystals or gelcaps.
– Global supply shortage of sassafras oil has impacted availability of MDMA.

Adverse Effects and Risks:
– Acute effects include hyperthermia, dehydration, and potential for fatal hyponatremia.
– Long-term use may lead to brain deficits, neurotoxic damage, and addiction.
– Risks during pregnancy include toxic effects on the fetus and developmental delays in infants.

Pharmacology and History:
– MDMA is a substituted amphetamine with high affinity for dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin transporters.
– It was first synthesized in 1912, with notable research by Alexander Shulgin in the 1970s.
– Legal challenges and international scheduling of MDMA have been influenced by its pharmacological properties and historical context.

MDMA (Wikipedia)

3,4-Methyl​enedioxy​methamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy (tablet form), and molly or mandy (crystal form), is a potent empathogen–entactogen with stimulant and minor psychedelic properties. Investigational indications include as an adjunct to psychotherapy in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and social anxiety in autism spectrum disorder. The purported pharmacological effects that may be prosocial include altered sensations, increased energy, empathy, and pleasure. When taken by mouth, effects begin in 30 to 45 minutes and last three to six hours.

INN: Midomafetamine
MDMA structure
Ball-and-stick model of an MDMA molecule
Clinical data
Other names3,4-MDMA; Ecstasy (E, X, XTC); midomafetamine; Molly; Mandy; Pingers/Pingas
Physical: not typical
Psychological: low–moderate
Routes of
Common: by mouth
Uncommon: snorting, inhalation (vaporization), injection, rectal
Drug classEmpathogen–entactogen
ATC code
  • None
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
BioavailabilityOral: Unknown
MetabolismLiver, CYP450 extensively involved, including CYP2D6
Onset of action30–45 minutes (by mouth)
Elimination half-life(R)-MDMA: 5.8 ± 2.2 hours (variable)
(S)-MDMA: 3.6 ± 0.9 hours (variable)
Duration of action4–6 hours
  • (RS)-1-(1,3-Benzodioxol-5-yl)-N-methylpropan-2-amine
CAS Number
PubChem CID
PDB ligand
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
Chemical and physical data
Molar mass193.246 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
ChiralityRacemic mixture
Density1.1 g/cm3
Boiling point105 °C (221 °F) at 0.4 mmHg (experimental)
  • CC(NC)CC1=CC=C(OCO2)C2=C1
  • InChI=1S/C11H15NO2/c1-8(12-2)5-9-3-4-10-11(6-9)14-7-13-10/h3-4,6,8,12H,5,7H2,1-2H3 checkY

MDMA was first synthesized in 1912 by Merck chemist Anton Köllisch. It was used to enhance psychotherapy beginning in the 1970s and became popular as a street drug in the 1980s. MDMA is commonly associated with dance parties, raves, and electronic dance music. Tablets sold as ecstasy may be mixed with other substances such as ephedrine, amphetamine, and methamphetamine. In 2016, about 21 million people between the ages of 15 and 64 used ecstasy (0.3% of the world population). This was broadly similar to the percentage of people who use cocaine or amphetamines, but lower than for cannabis or opioids. In the United States, as of 2017, about 7% of people have used MDMA at some point in their lives and 0.9% have used it in the last year. The lethal risk from one dose of MDMA is estimated to be from 1 death in 20,000 instances to 1 death in 50,000 instances.

Short-term adverse effects include grinding of the teeth, blurred vision, sweating and a rapid heartbeat, and extended use can also lead to addiction, memory problems, paranoia and difficulty sleeping. Deaths have been reported due to increased body temperature and dehydration. Following use, people often feel depressed and tired, although this effect does not appear in clinical use, suggesting that it is not a direct result of MDMA administration. MDMA acts primarily by increasing the release of the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline in parts of the brain. It belongs to the substituted amphetamine classes of drugs. MDMA is structurally similar to mescaline (a psychedelic), methamphetamine (a stimulant), as well as endogenous monoamine neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine.

MDMA has limited approved medical uses in a small number of countries, but is illegal in most jurisdictions. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is evaluating the drug for clinical use as of 2021. Canada has allowed limited distribution of MDMA upon application to and approval by Health Canada. In Australia, it may be prescribed in the treatment of PTSD by specifically authorised psychiatrists.

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